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T.A. Cerny-Koenig, J.E. Faust, and N.C. Rajapakse

In our previous experiments, greenhouse films that selectively remove far-red (FR) light from the growing environment reduced the stem elongation but delayed anthesis of long day plants. In the present research we investigated if the application of gibberellin A4 and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis inhibitors could overcome the delay in anthesis of petunia (Petunia ×hybrida Vilm.-Andr.), a quantitative long-day plant, under a FR light deficient environment. The GA biosynthesis inhibitors prohexadione-Ca and exo-C-16,17-dihydro GA5 (GA5) were used because of their ability to prevent catabolism of active GAs. Anthesis and stem elongation were investigated under control, red (R; 600 to 700 nm) and FR (700 to 800 nm) light-absorbing (AR and AFR) films. The R:FR ratios of control, AR, and AFR films were 1.03, 0.71, and 1.51, respectively. Air temperatures among treatment chambers were not different. AR film did not affect anthesis or stem elongation, but AFR film reduced stem elongation and delayed anthesis by 12 days. Exogenous application of GA5 had no effect on stem elongation, shoot dry weight or days to anthesis at any concentration (0 to 100 mg·L-1) tested under control, AR, or AFR films. Anthesis was delayed with increasing concentration (0 to 200 mg·L-1) of prohexadione-Ca under all treatments. Prohexadione-Ca at 200 mg·L-1 delayed anthesis by 11 and 7 days under the control and AFR film, respectively, suggesting an interaction between light quality and prohexadione-Ca treatment. Exogenous GA4 accelerated anthesis under both films but the promotion was greater under the AFR films. However, GA4 treatment increased stem elongation and the increase in stem elongation was greater under the AFR film. Addition of GA5 to GA4 had no added effect on flowering and failed to reduce stem elongation. Therefore, GA or GA inhibitors are not suitable for flower promotion under AFR films.

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Line Brissette, Laurence Tremblay, and Daniel Lord

Bud cultures from nonjuvenile field clones of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) were established on Z-2 medium with 59 μm 2iP. Reversion to juvenile characteristics with small and rounder leaves occurred only on two explants after 19 weeks in culture. These shoots grew vigorously and could be easily subcultured. The number of shoots of one clone doubled every 23.3 days. Reducing the 2iP concentration to 12.3 and 24.6 μm reduced shoot proliferation, but permitted better shoot elongation. After 5 weeks in a mix of 3 peat: 2 vermiculite: 1 perlite, shoots >20 mm rooted better than shoots measuring 10 to 20 mm. Chemical names used: N-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1-H-purine-6-amine (2iP); 1H-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA).

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Samir Debnath*

The morphological development of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plants propagated either by conventional softwood cuttings or by in vitro shoot proliferation from nodal explants or by shoot regeneration from excised leaves of micropropagated shoots, was studied in cultivars `Regal', `Splendor', and `Erntedank'. Significant differences were observed between the treatments. In vitro-derived plants produced more shoots branches and rhizomes in contrast to conventional cuttings which rarely produced rhizomes. Plants propagated from cuttings had a lower number but vigorous shoots and thicker rhizomes than in vitro-derived plants. Source propagule had significant effect on multiplication rate. Another experiment evaluated the effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) application to softwood cuttings on subsequent rooting, shoot development, and rhizome production. Treating cuttings with IBA did not significantly improve rhizome formation and elongation. In vitro culture on nutrient medium apparently induces the juvenile branching characteristics that favored rhizome production. The advantage of rhizome production of in vitro-derived plants over stem cuttings varied among genotypes.

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Young-Ki Park, Byung-Hoon Min, Heawon P. Choi, and Jung-Myung Lee

A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of chlorocholine and similar compounds such as choline, chlorocholine chloride (CCC or chlormequat) and other compounds on the rooting and seedling quality for transplanting. The growth of shoot and root and the ratio of shoot/root were influenced and consequently the seedling quality was improved by chlorocholine treatment. Mungbean bioassays for plant hormone revealed that rooting was promoted and shoot growth or stem elongation was inhibited by the treatment. Addition of other PGRs such as atonik, vitamins and surfactants to chlorocholine solution significantly promoted the rooting of mungbean cuttings as well as the rooting of cutting of sweet potato, cucumber, and watermelon.

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Raul I. Cabrera, Richard Y. Evans, and J.L. Paul

N uptake by greenhouse roses is out of phase with flower shoot elongation, such that N uptake is highest when shoots are not growing and lowest when shoots are elongating rapidly. Isotopically labelled 15N fertilizer was supplied at different stages of one flowering cycle to `Royalty' rose plants growing in a static nutrient solution system to study the partitioning of recently-absorbed N and the dynamics of N partitioning. After a two-day exposure, whole plants were harvested, separated into old and new leaves, stems, and roots, and analyzed for total N and 15N enrichment. During rapid shoot elongation, N uptake by roots supplied 16 to 36% of shoot N demand. The remaining N came from other organs, particularly old stems and leaves. The increased N uptake later in the flowering cycle was sufficient to meet shoot N demand and replenish the N supply in old foliage and woody tissues. These organs continued to accumulate N until the subsequent bud break, when this N became available for the next cycle of flowering shoot growth.

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Abdelrahman Al-Wasel

In vitro propagation of trifoliate orange rootstock (Poncirus trifoliate Raf.) was achieved using axillary buds taken from new flushes of mature trees and then cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS). The addition of growth regulators [0.5 mg·L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3) or 0.1 mg·L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.1 mg·L-1 indol-3-butyric acid (IBA)] were necessary to promote bud breakage and shoot elongation. Shoot proliferation was induced on MS medium supplemented with various levels of BA (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg·L-1) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.0, 0.1, and 0.5 mg·L-1). Maximal shoot multiplication (9.3 shoots/explant) and elongation (2.3 cm) occurred on media containing either 1.0 mg·L-1 BA alone or with 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. Shoots rooted better and gave high root number (7.6 roots/shoot) and long roots (5.4 cm) when cultured on a liquid MS medium provided by 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. Rooted shoots were successfully established in soil (≥90%).

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Ramon Dolcet-Sanjuan, Elisabet Claveria, Robert Gruselle, Adreas Meier-Dinkel, Christian Jay-Allemand, and Thomas Gaspar

Various factors were found to influence the in vitro induction and elongation of adventitious roots from walnut shoot microcuttings. Diverse walnut genotypes (Juglans regia, J. nigra × J. regia hybrids) and selected elite J. regia clones were micropropagated throughout the establishment of in vitro shoot-tip cultures. New evidence is presented here that demonstrates the importance of the genotype and juvenility of the plant material on the in vitro rooting ability. Selection of the best adapted genotypes to multiplication and rooting, and rejuvenation of mature clones through repetitive subcultures or micrografting were examined. Adult J. regia clones were rejuvenated through subsequent subcultures and their rooting was consequently improved. The same results were not accomplished by micrografting on juvenile shoots. A differential response to auxin type and concentration was observed for Juglans regia or J. nigra × J. regia clones. A short prerooting culture in multiplication medium, lowering the sucrose concentration in the root elongation medium and increasing the atmospheric carbon dioxide during the root elongation phase affected the number of shoots forming roots as well as the quality of plantlets and roots.

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Yaseen Mohamed-Yaseen, Raymond J. Schnell, Robert J. Knight, and T. L. Davenport

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an exceptional source of vitamin. C. It is also considered to be the most important cultivated species of the Myrtel family. Shoot tip and stem node were taken from seedling germinated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) and cultured in the same medium supplemented with 1-3mg/l benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.1mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 0.2-2mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) and 0.1mg/l NAA. Multiple shoots (4-6) were obtained in 4-5 weeks from culture in 1-2mg/l BA and 0.1mg/l NAA, while TDZ caused abnormal shoot growth. Shoots were rooted successfully with 100% frequency in MS medium containing 2mg/l indolebutyric acid and further elongation of shoots was achieved in MS medium, supplemented with lg/l activated charcoal. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil.

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Osamu Kawabata and Richard A. Criley

An aqueous solution of dikegulac-sodium at 0, 2000, 4000, 6000, or 8000 mg a.i./liter was sprayed on a mature Murraya paniculata hedge as the first leaves expanded on newly developing lateral shoots after trimming. The lateral shoots from each 0.09-m2 hedge surface elongated less and the coefficient of variation (cv) decreased as the growth regulator concentration increased. Application of dikegulac-sodium at 4000 mg a.i./liter to the most distal leaf on topped, single-leader seedlings inhibited the elongation of distal shoots while it enhanced proximal shoot growth. Dikegulac-sodium spray between 4000 and 6000 mg a.i./liter to the hedge decreased apical dominance among lateral shoots and enhanced uniform regrowth without causing visible damages. The cv reduction was attributed to the growth regulator-induced weakening of apical dominance. Chemical name used: sodium salt of 2,3:4,6-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-α-l-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac-sodium).

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James E. Faust, Sven Verlinden, and Royal D. Heins

Rapid reduction in temperature for two to three hours starting at sunrise reduces stem elongation compared to elongation of plants maintained under constant temperatures during the day. This experiment was designed to determine if syringing plants with water at sunrise would substitute for a reduction in air temperature or enhance the response to the drop in temperature. Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb.) plants were exposed to constant 20°C or to 20°C and then 16°C for a 3-hr period following sunrise. Half the plants in each temperature regime were syringed at 30-minute intervals with 20°C water for 3 hr starting 20 minutes before sunrise. Shoot-tip temperature during the three-hr pulse time averaged 20.0 and 17.3°C for the dry plants and 17.3 and 14.7°C for the syringed plants. Total elongation for the dry plants at 20°C was 30 cm and for the temperature-pulsed plants, 4.8 cm less; for the syringed plants, 3.3 and 5.8 cm less, respectively. While shoot-tip temperature of dry plants averaged 0.9°C above air temperature during the remaining hours of the day, syringed plants averaged 1.0°C cooler than the same air temperature even though plants had dried. The data indicate the reduction in stem elongation from a low-temperature pulse at sunrise can be enhanced by evaporative cooling.