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Nickolee Zollinger, Richard Koenig, Teresa Cerny-Koenig, and Roger Kjelgren

applications is limited because salinity levels are often higher than in primary or culinary sources. Salinity levels for some recycled water may be as low as 2 dS·m −1 ( Lindsey et al., 1998 ), whereas salinity levels for secondary water can exceed 5 dS·m −1

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Matthew J. Koch and Stacy A. Bonos

Breeding salinity tolerance into new turfgrass cultivars is of extreme importance as a result of increasing pressure from local governments to use wastewater as a replacement for potable irrigation water on turfgrass sites. This pressure typically

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Youping Sun, Liqin Li, Yuxiang Wang, and Xin Dai

In the arid and semi-arid southwestern United States, salinity is becoming one of the most serious problems threatening the quality of urban landscapes. High salinity in the soil and irrigation water affects plant growth, development, and survival

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Lingdi Dong, Waltram Ravelombola, Yuejin Weng, Jun Qin, Wei Zhou, Gehendra Bhattarai, Bazgha Zia, Wei Yang, Linqi Shi, Beiquan Mou, and Ainong Shi

cowpea is a drought-tolerant crop, its cultivation is prevalent in the semi-arid regions of the sub-Saharan areas in Africa ( Karapanos et al., 2017 ). However, soil salinity is severe in those regions because the low rainfall has resulted in poorly

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Genhua Niu and Raul I. Cabrera

types of available alternative or non-potable water sources vary with regions or even locations. Generally, municipal reclaimed water is the main alternative water. In some places, groundwater or sallow aquifer saline water and agricultural drainage

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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

High-salinity conditions in agricultural soil and irrigation water is one of the most serious challenges faced by agricultural crops in the world. It is estimated that salt-affected soils impact nearly 10% of the land surface and 50% of irrigated

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Raquel Valdés, Julián Miralles, Jesús Ochoa, Sebastián Bañón, and María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco

Irrigating with saline water leads to the accumulation of salt in the root zone, which reduces plant size and growth, alters plant development, and causes leaf damage. These effects are more pronounced in container-grown crops, in which the growing

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Chi M. Do, Kate L. Delaporte, Vinay Pagay, and Carolyn J. Schultz

Approximately 800 million ha worldwide are affected by saline soils (salinity) ( FAO, 2016 ) caused by both natural processes over long periods of time and more rapidly by human practices such as land clearing, changing cropping systems, and

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Rawia El-Motaium, Hening Hu, and Patrick H. Brown

We acknowledge the support of the Univ. of California Salinity Drainage Task Force and the Almond Board of California. We are grateful to Douglas V. Shaw for advice in statistical analysis. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by

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Liang Cheng, Ning Zhang, and Bingru Huang

Salinity is a major stress limiting plant growth in areas with saline soils or irrigated with poor quality water. Salinity stress can impose cellular and physiological damages including osmotic stress, ion toxicity, and nutrient disturbances