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David I. Yates, Brandi L. Earp, Foster Levy, and Elaine S. Walker

To improve the success of vegetative propagation of Sciadopitys verticillata, stem cuttings were subjected to three treatments designed to minimize the accumulation of a latex-like sap at the cut ends of stems. A 24-hour soak in water before a hormone dip significantly enhanced rooting success and root mass. The water soak pretreatment was more beneficial to hardwood cuttings compared with softwood cuttings. Cuttings from shade-grown source trees showed the highest rooting success, but source tree age, height, and place of origin were not important factors. The water-insoluble latex-like sap had strong antibacterial activity against 3 of 11 bacterial species tested, but activity was not related to bacterial Gram reaction or the bacterial natural environment. In contrast, pine resins and latexes from selected angiosperms showed no antibacterial activity. The antibacterial component of the Sciadopitys latex-like sap was heat stable and therefore probably not protein based.

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Michael A. Arnold

122 WORKSHOP 16 Quality and Management of Tree Root Systems: Current Status and Future Directions

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Steven E. Newman and Jesse R. Quarrels

143 POSTER SESSION 23 (Abstr. 849-859A) Ornament&/Floriculture: Weed & Root Growth Culture

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Almudena Montoliu, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas, and Rosa M. Pérez-Clemente

-scale propagation of several woody species such as Vitis , Prunus rootstocks, Malus , and so on ( George et al., 2008 ). However, in many others species, adventitious root formation is still a major problem. Root formation of woody species was found to be

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Jesús Gallegos, Juan E. Álvaro, and Miguel Urrestarazu

The response of roots to mechanical impedance has intrigued horticulturists, plant biologists, and substrate physicists for at least two centuries ( Araki and Iijima, 2001 ; Atwell, 1993 ), whereas the model of root growth as a function of multiple

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Sven E. Svenson and Timothy K. Broschat

143 POSTER SESSION 23 (Abstr. 849-859A) Ornament&/Floriculture: Weed & Root Growth Culture

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L. Eric Hinesley, Frank A. Blazich, and Layne K. Snelling

Hardwood and softwood stem cuttings of 5-year-old Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were cut to 12-cm (short) or 24-cm (long) lengths, treated with 0 to 15 g IBA/liter in 50% isopropyl alcohol, and rooted in a raised greenhouse bench under intermittent mist. When hardwood cuttings were collected in February, short cuttings survived and rooted better than long cuttings. Survival and percent rooting for softwood cuttings collected in late August was virtually 10070 regardless of cutting length. Long cuttings produced more roots and longer roots with hardwood and softwood material. IBA was unnecessary for rooting, but it markedly increased the number of roots. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Edward L. McCoy

Root zone amendments are typically organic materials or inorganic materials of diverse mineralogy that when added to sand at modest rates of 5% to 20% by volume are capable of substantially and permanently altering the physical and chemical

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John M. Ruter and Dewayne L. Ingram

125 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 624-630)Root Environment

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William R. Argo

Acceptable physical properties are an integral part of root-media quality. However, there is no one growing medium that works best in all situations because root-media physical properties are not constant, but rather can be affected by the grower. Understanding the root environment under production conditions requires an understanding of the dynamic nature of air : water : solid ratio in the medium. The objective of this review is to consider key aspects of root-medium physical properties, which include bulk density and particle size, container capacity, media settling, water absorption, rewettability, moisture release characteristics, and water loss due to evaporation from the root-medium surface.