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Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

-bearing” raspberry and blackberry, normal flowering requires cessation of growth, bud dormancy, and sufficient chilling. The canes, in this case, are vegetative during the first year of growth (primocanes) and flower, fruit, and then senesce in the second year

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Oleg Daugovish, Mark Gaskell, Miguel Ahumada, and Anna D. Howell

Agricultural Commissioner’s Crop and Livestock Report ( Ventura County, 2019 ). Raspberries and blackberries are typically grown in relatively short-term cycle in California compared with traditional caneberry production ( Bolda et al., 2012 ). Primocane

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Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

the plants and then only mowed or removed just before fruit harvest. Trailing blackberry is a perennial crop, but like other caneberry species, the shoots or canes of the plant are biennial. Vegetative canes, referred to as primocanes, emerge from the

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

, 2014 ]. Blackberry is a perennial plant that produces biennial canes from the crown. When canes emerge the first year, they are vegetative and called primocanes. In their 2nd year, they produce fruiting laterals and fruit on what are then called

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

allocate nutrients. Floricane-fruiting blackberry plants have perennial crowns and roots, with biennial aboveground canes. In the spring, vegetative primocanes emerge and grow throughout the summer until the autumn, when they go dormant and overwinter. The

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Renee H. Harkins, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

alternative option and has been approved for use as a weed barrier in organic plantings ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011 ). Trailing blackberry may be well suited to weed mat because, unlike erect and semierect types, new canes, referred to as primocanes

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Javier Fernandez-Salvador, Bernadine C. Strik, and David R. Bryla

( Fernandez-Salvador, 2014 ; Harkins et al., 2013 ). In blackberry, N must be available in early spring for sufficient primocane growth ( Malik et al., 1991 ; Mohadjer et al., 2001 ; Naraguma and Clark, 1998 ). The current recommendation is to divide the

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Lisa Wasko DeVetter, Suzette Galinato, Troy Kortus, and Jonathan Maberry

found the yield of ‘Meeker’ and ‘Willamette’ was reduced overall by 60% in an AY system ( Barney and Miles, 2007 ). However, it is unknown whether primocane suppression occurred during the study, which can impact yield potential ( Duan et al., 2017

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Huan Zhang, Carol Miles, Shuresh Ghimire, Chris Benedict, Inga Zasada, Hang Liu, and Lisa DeVetter

of TC transplants, some growers have started planting in late summer (August) because this planting time allows plants a longer period of time for establishment. In this system, TC transplants overwinter and grow primocanes during the first and second

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Emily K. Dixon, Bernadine C. Strik, Luis R. Valenzuela-Estrada, and David R. Bryla

by Harkins et al. (2013) . Plants were trained on a two-wire vertical trellis system in each row with the wires attached to steel posts at 1.0 and 1.6 m above the ground. Primocanes that grew in year 1 (2010, the planting year) were removed in the