Experiments were conducted to develop a modified atmosphere packaging system for fresh-cut cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves, and to determine the effect of package film oxygen transmission rate (OTR) on package atmosphere and the consequence on quality and microbiology of the product. Package film OTR significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the package atmospheres and the resultant postharvest physiology and quality of fresh-cut cilantro leaves under the tested package configuration (bag size 19 × 22 cm, product fill weight 85 g/bag) and storage condition (0 °C). Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels of the packages prepared with 3500 mL·d-1·m-2 OTR films equilibrated at 1.5 to 2.3 kPa and 3.6 to 4.1 kPa, respectively, on day 3 and maintained this level throughout the storage. The gas compositions of the packages with 6200 mL·d-1·m-2 OTR films showed a similar trend, except they equilibrated at a higher O2 (3.6 to 5.6 kPa) and lower CO2 (2.7 to 3.3 kPa) level. Fresh-cut cilantro leaves in both packages exhibited the highest tissue integrity as evidenced by the lowest tissue electrolyte leakage, with high overall visual quality scores (like moderately to like very much) at the end of 14 days storage. However, atmospheres in 1700 mL·d-1·m-2 OTR film packages displayed a rapid depletion of O2 and accumulation of CO2, with essentially no O2 (≈0.02 kPa) and high CO2 (7.7 to 9.0 kPa) levels inside the packages from day 6 until the end of storage. A rapid increase in tissue electrolyte leakage was observed in cilantro leaves in these packages starting on day 6, increasing 6-fold at the end of the storage period. Products in these packages developed a strong off-odor, accompanied by a rapid loss of typical aroma and overall visual quality, with an unacceptable quality rating at the end of storage (dislike slightly). Samples packaged in perforated bags (without modified atmosphere) lost moisture over time, and small numbers of wilted leaves were seen. There was a slow but significant (P < 0.001) increase in aerobic organisms over time with no significant (P > 0.05) difference among treatments. There was an increase in anaerobic microorganisms on cilantro leaves packaged in 1700 mL·d-1·m-2 OTR film, although only ≈0.5 log cfu/g difference was observed among the treatments and over time.
Yaguang Luo, James L. McEvoy, Marian R. Wachtel, Ji Gang Kim, and Yun Huang
Susan S. Han
The effects of the duration of cold storage, as well as the concentration, timing, and means of application of a solution containing 25 mg·L-1 each of benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins (GA4+7) on the postharvest quality of cut Asiatic and Oriental lilies (Lilium sp.) were evaluated. Depending on the cultivar, lower leaves began to turn yellow between 1 and 2 weeks after placing non-cold-stored stems in a 20 °C room illuminated 12 h·d-1 with 8 μmol·m-2·s-1 from cool-white fluorescent lamps. Leaf yellowing continued to progress upward until the end of the vase life. Cold storage (3.3 °C) worsened the leaf disorder, particularly, on the Oriental lily `Stargazer'. The longer the duration of cold storage, the earlier the development of leaf yellowing and the higher the percentage of leaves that were chlorotic. In addition, cold storage induced bud blasting, inhibited flowers from fully opening, and reduced the longevity and fresh weight of open flowers and the vase life of cut stems. Spraying leaves with a solution containing 25 mg·L-1 each of BA and GA4+7 significantly reduced cold-storage-induced leaf yellowing, bud blasting, and vase life of three of the four cultivars tested. The development of leaf yellowing declined with increasing concentration of BA+GA4+7. The susceptibility of `Stargazer' to cold-storage-induced leaf yellowing and bud blasting can be counteracted by a concentration of growth regulators higher than that which was effective for the other cultivars. Timing of the BA+GA4+7 application was not critical, as there were no differences in leaf yellowing or bud development when the solution was sprayed before or after the cold storage. Addition of BA+GA4+7 (0.5 or 2.5 mg·L-1 of each) to the preservative solution or a pulsed treatment in solutions containing 25 mg·L-1 each of BA and GA4+7 for 4 hours prevented leaf yellowing, but increased bud blasting. For practical applications, growth regulators can be sprayed prior to or after cold storage in order to improve the postharvest leaf and flower quality of cut lilies.
Steven A. Sargent, Peter J. Stoffella, and Donald N. Maynard
Short-day onions (Allium cepa L.) grown under humid, subtropical conditions at two locations were evaluated for bulb size and yield at five harvest dates (H1 to H5) ranging from 94 to 132 days after transplanting (DAT) for `Granex 33' and from 115 to 153 DAT for `Texas Grano 1015Y'. Maximum yields were attained by H4 for both cultivars and were attributed to increased bulb size rather than differences in plant (bulb) population. Nondried, large bulbs (>7.6 cm diameter) from each harvest were trimmed and stored at 1 or 10 °C and 80% relative humidity (RH) for 2 weeks plus 2 weeks at 20 °C and 80% RH to simulate commercial storage and handling. Initial respiration rates of bulbs of both cultivars decreased >60% between H1 and H4. Bulbs also retained higher fresh weight during storage as harvest was delayed. Storage for 2 weeks at 1 °C suppressed sprouting of immature (H1) `Texas Grano 1015Y' bulbs, but not of `Granex 33' bulbs from one location. Storage at 10 °C did not suppress sprouting of either cultivar. Decay became more prevalent with delayed harvest, but `Granex 33' was more resistant to decay than was `Texas Grano 1015Y', which developed up to 40% decay after 2 weeks at 20 °C. Harvest at 115 and 132 DAT resulted in acceptable yields for `Granex 33' and `Texas Grano 1015', respectively, and satisfactory postharvest quality of nondried bulbs following 2 weeks of storage at 1 °C and 80% RH plus 2 weeks at 20 °C.
Ria T. Leonard and Terril A. Nell
Several pulse solutions were tested for their effectiveness in preventing leaf senescence on four cut oriental lily cultivars (Lilium sp. `Acapulco', `Kissproof', `Noblesse' and `Star Gazer'). Stems were pulsed 24 hours after harvest for 1 hour, stored in boxes in the dark for 5 days at 3 °C (37.4 °F) then evaluated in postharvest conditions. A new commercial product called Chrysal BVB, a proprietary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal (Miami) containing cytokinine and gibberellic acids, was the most effective product tested. Chrysal BVB [1 mL·L–1 (0.1%)] prevented leaf chlorosis and abscission on `Acapulco' and `Noblesse' and significantly reduced it by 82% on `Star Gazer' and by 69% on `Kissproof'. Stems pulsed in Fascination, a commercial mixture containing 1.8% gibberellins (GA4+7) and 1.8% benzyladenine [5.4 mg·L–1 (ppm) each], virtually prevented leaf chlorosis on `Noblesse', reduced it by 50% or more on `Acapulco' and `Star Gazer', and significantly delayed it 8 days on `Kissproof'. A 10 μm (2 ppm) pulse in thidiazuron, a substituted phenylurea with cytokinin-like properties, delayed leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer' but to a lesser extent compared to BVB and Fascination. Chrysal SVB, a propri-etary mixture manufactured by Pokon & Chrysal containing gibberellic acid, had no effect on reducing leaf chlorosis on `Star Gazer'. None of the pulse solutions had adverse effects on bud opening, flower quality or vase life. Maintaining stems in a bulb flower preservative significantly reduced leaf chlorosis and abscission in all cultivars when stems were not pretreated with a pulse solution or when a pulse solution was ineffective.
Maria J. Sindoni V. and Frank B. Matta
92 POSTER SESSION 10 (Abstr. 105–119) Postharvest Physiology/Storage/Food Science Tuesday, 25 July, 1:00–2:00 p.m.
Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau
The biggest problem faced by the food industry in South Africa is the maintenance of quality of fresh produce during postharvest storage ( Munhuweyi et al., 2016 ). Attempts to reduce losses and maintain quality of fresh food, primarily fruits and
Emilie Proulx, Yavuz Yagiz, M. Cecilia, N. Nunes, and Jean-Pierre Emond
, during the postharvest period greatly affect the shelf life and quality of snap beans. It is well recognized that good temperature management is the simplest way to maintain a high-quality appearance as well as to delay losses in the nutritional value of
Marisa M. Wall and Shakil A. Khan
Molins R.A. Food irradiation: Principles and applications John Wiley and Sons, Inc New York, NY Hoa, T.T. Clark, C.J. Waddell, B.C. Woolf, A.D. 2006 Postharvest quality of dragon fruit
G. Lysiak, W.J. Florkowski, and S.E. Prussia
fruit firmness was among the most important characteristics consumers used to judge eating quality. In this study, a postharvest application of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) was evaluated as a method for improving peach firmness. CaCl 2 is a naturally
Gary A Chastagner, Ulrik Bräuner Nielsen, and Kathleen L. Riley
Postharvest moisture and needle retention of boughs was examined for four Danish and five U.S. provenances of noble fir grown in Denmark. Boughs were displayed indoors under controlled conditions, and data were collected relating to rates of moisture loss and needle retention. Small current-year shoots had moisture and needle loss patterns similar to larger bough material. Postharvest quality of the Danish and U.S. provenance boughs was very similar. There was also a high correlation between the moisture level of the boughs and shoots, indicating that it should be possible to use small shoots to assess differences in moisture retention in future tests.