Search Results

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 1,617 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

I. David van der Walt and Gail M. Littlejohn

The influence of storage temperature and humidity on pollen viability was studied in four Protea species. Pollen was stored at a range of temperatures and relative humidities for up to 1 year and tested for ability to germinate in vitro. Pollen of P. repens (L.) L. `Sneyd', P. eximia (Salisb. ex Knight) Fourcade `Fiery Duchess' and P. magnifica Link. clone T 84 07 05 stored at -196 °C and -14 to -18 °C retained a germination percentage as high as that of fresh pollen regardless of humidity. Humidity control became increasingly important at storage temperatures above 0 °C. The study showed that long-term storage of Protea pollen is not feasible at temperatures above 0 °C. The relationship between germinability and fluorochromasia (FCR) was studied during storage of `Sneyd' pollen. The correlations between FCR and germinability were found to be low and nonsignificant. Fifteen-month-old cryopreserved `Sneyd' pollen functioned in fertilization and seed set as effectively as fresh pollen.

Free access

Keri D. Jones, Sandra M. Reed, and Timothy A. Rinehart

first estimated using flow cytometry and then confirmed in selected diploid and triploid plants using chromosome counts. The potential for using stomatal guard cell length and pollen grain size to identify ploidy level of H. macrophylla plants was also

Free access

Robert D. Marquard

In vivo pollen tube growth of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] was estimated to be ≈ 150 μm·hour-1 from 3 to 8 hours postpollination. Pollen tubes averaged 47, 194, 405, and 946 μm after 2, 3, 4, and 8 hours postpollination, respectively. Pollen tube growth was strongly influenced by temperature, and in vitro studies demonstrated pollen germination and tube growth were optimal at 27C for `Cape Fear' pecan. In in vivo studies, tubes of cross-pollen did not grow significantly faster than tubes of self-pollen. Pollen tubes of water hickory [C. aquatica (Michx. f.) Nutt.] grew significantly faster than those of C. illinoinensis. Bitternut [C. cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] and mockernut hickory (C. tomentosa Nutt.) pollen tubes grew significantly slower on pecan stigmas than did pecan pollen. Pollen arriving first on the stigma has a decided advantage for fertilization success of pecan. The fertilization success rate of pecan pollen arriving 24 hours after first pollen arrival was <3%.

Free access

Patricio A. Brevis, D. Scott NeSmith, Hazel Y. Wetzstein, and Dorothy B. Hausman

Fruit set of rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) can be pollen-limited under certain conditions. The objective of this study was to determine production, release, and viability of pollen, as well as pollen-ovule ratios in the rabbiteye blueberry cultivars Austin, Brightwell, Climax, and Tifblue. In vitro tetrad germination varied among genotypes, although, values were high (≥80%) in all cultivars. Pollen viability does not seem to contribute to reproductive failure in the cultivars studied. Total pollen production per flower averaged 8434 tetrads across all cultivars. On a per ovule basis, pollen production was very low relative to other xenogamous species. The low pollen-ovule ratio of rabbiteye blueberry (≈400) may be an indicator of the high efficiency of its pollen dispensing mechanism. Total pollen production varied among cultivars. Furthermore, a significant difference in pollen release was found between two cultivars with similar total pollen production per flower. The possible mechanism regulating pollen release in these cultivars is discussed.

Free access

Hamidou F. Sakhanokho and M. Nurul Islam-Faridi

appear to be diploid (2 n = 2 x = 24). The effect of induced polyploidy has been associated with modifications of various traits including plant height, flower size, pollen viability, fruit characteristics, and leaf size ( Chen et al., 2006 ; Kermani

Open access

Bo Wang, Weimin Wu, Xicheng Wang, Zhuangwei Wang, and Yaming Qian

as a pollinizer. It was also cultivated in square concrete containers with one vine per container. Pollination treatments. All the clusters of ‘Zijinqiunong’ and ‘Carlos’ were covered with single-layer white bags to prevent pollen

Free access

Yinping Shi, Qiangsheng Wang, Jianming Yang, Congyi Sui, and Qingrong Sun

To perform apple polyploid breeding the ways of inducing polyploidy pollen with temperature and chemicals were studied. Materials include 13 diploid cultivars: Red Chief, Dai Hong, Rose Red, Golden Delicious, Mollie's Delicious, Gala, Bella, Jonathan, Fuji, Qiu Kou Hong, and Yan Qing, OBIR-2T-47. Chemicals: Chloroform, N-nitroso-ethylurea. At the beginning of PMC meiosis, fruiting branching groups were covered with plastic bags to raise temperature or were treated with chemical. After covering, temperature during the day increased 2 °C, generally not lower than 0 °C. Whether branches received high temperature or chemicals treatment, polyploidy pollen was induced to produce. The pollen grain of CK is tricolporat, its polar view is triangular, and its diameter almost 40 μm, showing no difference in size. Rate of empty pollen grain is low. Pollen grains that were treated were different in size, and rate of empty pollen is high, part of pollen grains germinating colporat change into tetracolporat with a few polycolporat, its polar view is square, round, and oval. The diameter of large pollen grains was 45-48 μm, increased by 11-12%. Giant pollen grain are 50-68 μm, increased by 25%-70%. Rate of induction is different in different cultivars. For most cultivars, giant pollen grain is 0.3%-0.5%. Gala and OBIR-2T-47 were higher, reaching 2.5%-7%. Chemicals caused damage on cultivars. Delicious strains were easily damaged.

Free access

Charles J. Simon and John C. Sanford

A method is described for separating large and small pollen effectively from a heterogeneous mixture. This method potentially is applicable to separation of pollen grains of different ploidy levels, since “unreduced” 2n pollen is larger than normal pollen (n); it might then be used to increase the efficiency of a breeding program employing sexual polyploidization and to diminish crossing inefficiencies in interploid crosses.

Free access

S.M. Scheiber, C.D. Robacker, and M.A. Dirr

The genus Abelia contains ≈30 species, but A. × grandiflora, its cultivars, and A. `Edward Goucher' are the primary taxa grown. The nursery industry has stated that Abelia R. Br. taxa are important economically, and new selections or cultivars with increased cold hardiness, richer pink-rose flower colors, unique foliage colors, and compact habits are desired. Breeding and selection work in the genus is very limited due in part to limited access to germplasm. Pollen storage enables breeders to cross taxa with incongruent flowering cycles, save time and resources by eliminating the need to grow vast amounts of plant material, and incorporate otherwise unavailable germplasm into a breeding program. An experiment was conducted to determine the optimum levels of temperature and humidity for the long-term storage of A. chinensis and A. × grandiflora `Golden Glow' pollen. Temperature and humidity levels were analyzed by incubating undesiccated pollen of a given taxon at four humidity levels (0%, 50%, 80%, and 100%) for 72 h at 5 °C. Following incubation, the pollen was stored in glass vials at each of the following temperatures: 5, -20, and -70 °C. All combinations of temperature and humidity were tested. Pollen viability was assessed after 60 days by in vivo germination tests on styles. Abelia chinensis pollen germinated following storage at all temperature and humidity levels. Pollen of A. × grandiflora `Golden Glow' pollen germinated following all treatments except storage at -20 °C.

Free access

Scott Reid, Judy Harrington, and Harrison Hughes

Distichlis spicata var. stricta (Torrey) Beetle is a native grass that tolerates salt, high pH, and some heavy metals. It has been proposed for use in several challenging environments, including mine spoils and salt-impacted areas of golf courses. But, its widespread use has been hindered by several factors, one of which is poor seed set. Because chromosome numbers are variable and some genotypes are aneuploids, there was concern that pollen viability in some genotypes was low. Pollen from several genotypes failed to germinate in vitro on four artificial media prepared with various levels of osmoticum. However, hand pollination in vivo resulted in profuse pollen germination for all genotypes tested. Germination on pollinated stigmas was observed at intervals beginning 2 h after pollination with a fluorescence microscope using aniline blue and acridine orange stains and in bright field using toluidine-O stain. Very young stigmas seemed unreceptive and, while pollen would germinate, the pollen tubes would not grow down through the style. On receptive stigmas, many pollen tubes grew down toward the egg and some reached it within 24 h. There was no evidence of impaired fertility. Aniline blue was the best method for observing pollen tube growth through the style, although toluidine-O was adequate for observing germination on the stigmatic surface.