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Luis Pozo and Jacqueline K. Burns

-like autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis activity ( Katz et al., 2004 ). System II gives way to System I as development proceeds, which is characterized by low internal ethylene production and autoinhibition. Together with the balance between phytohormones such as

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Tripti Vashisth and Anish Malladi

herbivore attack (Taylor and Whitelaw, 2001). Multiple phytohormones such as auxins, ethylene, jasmonates, and abscisic acid regulate the signaling mechanisms leading to the activation and progression of abscission ( Hartmond et al., 2000 ; Kim et al., 2013

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Weijie Jiang, Jie Bai, Xueyong Yang, Hongjun Yu, and Yanpeng Liu

resulted in the cloning and characterization of many components of the cold signaling pathway, in which the phytohormone ABA plays an important role ( Xin and Browse, 2000 ). Moreover, Put and another class of phytohormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs

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Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak, and Mi Seon Kim

) ( Kubatsch et al., 2007 ), and coleus ( Solenostemon scutellarioides ) ( Garland et al., 2010 ). A recent review article reported that shade induced stem elongation through phytohormone signaling, thus producing tall but thin plants as a shade avoidance

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

growth and flowering. More recent studies indicate that seaweed extracts can stimulate increases in endogenous phytohormones such as cytokinins, auxin, indole acetic acid, and gibberellic acid, which can improve growth and development, as well as protect

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Michael W. Smith, Charles T. Rohla, and Niels O. Maness

has been supported by several studies ( Malstrom, 1974 ; Sparks and Brack, 1972 ; Wood, 1989 , 1991 ; Worley, 1979a , b ). Barnett and Mielke (1981) suggested that phytohormones may be involved in regulation of pecan alternate bearing. The

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Christian T. Christensen, Lincoln Zotarelli, Kathleen G. Haynes, and Charles Ethan Kelly

flowers: Genes and phytohormones, p. 325–366. In: E. Galun (ed.). Phytohormones and patterning: The role of hormones in plant architecture. World Scientific, Hackensack, NJ Gandarillas, H. Nylund, R.E. 1949 Further studies on the influence of sprout

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Lili Dong, Qi Wang, Feng Xiong, Na Liu, and ShuiMing Zhang

novel phytohormone that can inhibit shoot branching ( Al-Babili and Bouwmeester, 2015 ; Gomez-Roldan et al., 2008 ; Umehara et al., 2008 ). Strigolactones are derived from the carotenoids ( Lopez-Raez et al., 2008 ; Matusova et al., 2005 ), which were

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Piyada Alisha Tantasawat, Atitaya Sorntip, and Paniti Pornbungkerd

; Cooke et al., 1993 ). Because the gynogenesis response in cucumber appeared to be seasonally variable (P.A. Tantasawat et al., unpublished data), it is possible that the endogenous phytohormone levels in donor plant tissues, which were environment

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, Richard Hassell, and Judy Thies

-distance signals also may involve mRNAs and small RNAs ( Kehr and Buhtz, 2008 ). RNA transcripts, which have been identified in the phloem, include transcriptional regulators, genes controlling cell fate and cell cycle, phytohormone responsive genes, and metabolic