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Dalong Zhang, Yuping Liu, Yang Li, Lijie Qin, Jun Li, and Fei Xu

therefore effectively enhance plant photosynthesis and growth ( Lu et al., 2015 ; Zhang et al., 2015 , 2017 , 2018 ). It is generally considered that the movement of water through the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum is driven by a gradient in water

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph Masabni

photosynthesis in lower plant canopy levels and subsequently increase plant yield at the whole plant canopy level ( Dou et al., 2019a ; Terashima et al., 2009 ; Wang and Folta, 2013 ). In addition, G wavelengths induce shade avoidance responses in plants, such

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Hong Jiang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiumei Jiang, and Yong Qin

the photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant system, and osmotic regulation of multiple vegetative organs of various crops have been studied. Salt stress can inhibit photosynthesis in plants (Han et al., 2014). High salt stress can reduce g S

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Rebecca M. Harbut, J. Alan Sullivan, John T.A. Proctor, and Harry J. Swartz

photosynthesis ( Zelitch, 1982 ). The increases in yield over the last century have been largely the result of increases in harvest index and light interception; however, the role that photosynthesis has played is not completely understood ( Richards, 2000 ). In

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Wenjie Ma, Wen Liang, and Bing Zhao

environment) ( Fanourakis et al., 2016 ). Research has shown that VPD not only has a direct effect on stomatal conductance ( g s ), photosynthesis, and water transport ( Sinclair et al., 2007 ) but also affects plant temperature via transpiration. Greater VPD

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J.W. Moon Jr., D.M. Kopec, E. Fallahi, C.F. Macino, D.C. Slack, and K. Jordan

Photosynthesis was reduced by 85% to 90% in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Derby) following a one-day chilling exposure at 8C day (450 μmol·s-1·m-2 PPF) and 5C night. Seven days of recovery at 22/17C day/night were required for full recovery of photosynthesis. More than 75% of the limitation in photosynthesis following chilling was due to non-stomatal factors, and reduced initial slopes of CO2 assimilation vs. intercellular CO, indicate that photosynthetic capacity was reduced for 5 days following chilling. Carbon dioxide assimilation at saturating intercellular CO2 (>500 μmol·mol-l) was also reduced by chilling, indicating again that stomatal limitations were a minor contributor to the photosynthetic reduction observed under ambient CO2.

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James R. Ehleringer

Abstract

Over the past 15 years tremendous progress has been made in the study of photosynthetic pathways. It is now accepted that there are 3 distinct photo-synthetic pathways in higher plants: the Calvin-Benson pathway (C3 photosynthesis), the Hatch-Slack pathway (C4 photosynthesis), and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM photosynthesis). Much progress has been made in describing the biochemistry and physiology of these pathways, but less is understood of the.genetics, ecology, evolution, and regulation of these pathways. The purpose of this review will be to bring the reader up to date on the significant details of the biochemistry and physiology of the 3 photosynthetic pathways and to present an ecological/evolutionary view of the significance of differences in the pathways.

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Dawei Shi, Xiaodong Wei, Guoxiang Chen, and Yanli Xu

Leaf senescence is characterized by programmed degradation of cellular constituents such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, together with organelles and structures of leaf cell, resulting in a significant photosynthetic decline. Photosynthesis

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Ming Liu, Aijun Zhang, Xiaoguang Chen, Rong Jin, Hongmin Li, and Zhonghou Tang

exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured using a portable photosynthesis system (LI-6400 XT, LI-COR, Inc., Lincoln, NE). The P n , T r , g S , and intercellular CO 2 concentration ( C i ) were measured on the upper, third fully

Open access

D. C. Ferree

Abstract

The impact of environmental factors on the photosynthetic potential of tree fruits is largely uncontrollable, but one can affect photo synthetic efficiency through the manipulation of various cultural practices. Application of pesticides and other chemicals; tree size and shape; mineral nutrition; and pest damage are all important factors and should be carefully considered in maximizing net photosynthesis (Pn) and ultimate tree performance.