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Juan L. Silva, Estuardo Marroquin, Frank B. Matta, and Esteban A. Herrera

This work is the result of 3 years of collaborative research between Mississippi State Univ. and New Mexico State Univ. Physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics were studied to assess eating quality of popular New Mexico pecan (Carya illinoinensis) cultivars. The force and energy necessary to break (shear) pecan nuts, and Hunter `a' and hue angle values varied with harvest year and cultivar. All other traits, including sensory evaluation results, varied only with cultivar. `Ideal' was of light color, small size, and not as firm as the others, while `Burkett' was soft and slightly rancid. `Wichita' was the cultivar rated best by panelists, despite its slightly darker color. `Western Schley' and `Salopek' were also acceptable, although not as acceptable as `Wichita'.

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Curt R. Rom, R. Andy Allen, Donn T. Johnson, and Ronald McNew

The NE-183 project was established in 1993 and the first trial planted in 1995 with the objective of evaluating new apple cultivars for horticultural, pest and disease resistance, and qualitative characteristics. Arkansas (AR) is the southernmost location for the initial planting. The following cultivars are in AR trial: `Arlet', `Braeburn', `Cameo', `Creston', `Enterprise', `Fortune', `Fuji', `Gala Supreme', `Ginger Gold', `GoldCrisp', `Golden Delicious', `Golden Supreme', `Goldrush', `Honeycrisp', `NY75414-1', `Orin', `Pristine', `Sansa', `Shizuka', `Suncrisp', `Sunrise', and `Yataka'. Bloom of `Braeburn', `Yataka', `Orin', `Gold Supreme', `Fortune', and `Enterprise' were early and may be exposed to annual spring frosts. The following cultivars ripened in July or August and may be too early for southern markets: `Pristine', `Sunrise', `Sansa', `Ginger Gold', `Arlet', `Honeycrisp', `Golden Supreme', and `Orin'. The following cultivars were very precocious and had yields >7.5 kg/tree in the third growing season: `Fuji', `Enterprise', `Creston', `Golden Delicious', `Ginger Gold', `Suncrisp', and `Goldrush'.

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Mark S. Strefeler and Robert-Jan W. Quené

Six commercial cultivars (Anna, Aurore, Danhill, Danlight, Melanie, and Thelca), one drought tolerant cultivar (Orangeade), nine breeding selections, and one check genotype of Impatiens hawkeri Bull were evaluated for differences in drought tolerance based on water loss and time to wilt. The six commercially available cultivars had significantly higher mean water loss than the breeding selections and `Orangeade'. These cultivars wilted in 5.11 vs. 7.33 days for `Orangeade' and 9.10 days for the breeding selections. These results suggest that sufficient variability exists in New Guinea impatiens germplasm for the reduction of water loss to improve drought tolerance. Regression analysis revealed that total transpirational water loss 96 hours after withholding water was an excellent predictor of the time to wilting (a simple measure of drought tolerance) after water was withheld (R2 = 0.95). Thus, a simple, efficient and objective method for selection of drought tolerant genotypes has been developed for New Guinea impatiens. A comparison of offspring to parental genotypes showed that after only one cycle of selection, water loss was significantly reduced by >30%. These results suggest that there is sufficient genetic variability present for the development of more drought tolerant cultivars.

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Kyung Ku Shim, Y.M. Ha, J.B. Lee, K.O. Byun, Y. Youn, E.R. Noh, and H.R. Park

New cultivars, `SKK 1' and `SKK 2', of Korean mountain ash (Sorbus alnifolia) that had superior morphological features as woody landscape plants were selected from 5000 seedlings of Sorbus alnifolia. Two clones with genetic variation were selected from 1983 to 1994 as landscape plants with large leaf and unique tree form: `SKK 1', which had large leaf and flower, and `SKK 2', with semi-weeping tree form. New selected cultivars of S. alnifolia were successfully grafted and inherited their mother characteristics. Sorbus alnifolia was difficult to propagate by cutting. Therefore, in vitro propagation methods might be used to propagate the superior cultivars. Shoots with apical and axillary buds were excised from 1-year-old seedlings. The explants were cultured on WPM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BA. Shoots formed from initial cultures were subcultured at ≈4-week intervals onto the same media. To know the best hormone concentration in shoot multiplication, 0.1–3.0 mg/L of BA and 0.1–1.0 mg/L of zeatin were added to each WPM and MS media. The best shoot proliferation and elongation were obtained on MS medium with 1.0 mg/L BA from the whole shoot with the callus-like tissue, whereas the worst results were obtained from shoot tip. A 13-fold proliferation rate was achieved every 4 weeks.

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Darab Hassani, Mohammad Reza Mozaffari, Asghar Soleimani, Raana Dastjerdi, Reza Rezaee, Mansureh Keshavarzi, Kourosh Vahdati, Ahmad Fahadan, and Jamal Atefi

characterized by high yield, lateral fruitfulness, and early harvest. Origin In Iran, the walnut breeding program started in 1984 through the selection of native germplasm. This project led to the selection of some superior genotypes, of which two new cultivars

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Mahn Jo Kim, Uk Lee, Kwang Ok Byun, Moon Ho Lee, Myung Suk Jung, and Yong Hee Kwon

A new chestnut cultivar, Mipung ( Castanea kusakuri Blume), was released from Korean native chestnut trees by the chestnut laboratory of the Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI) in 2005. This cultivar was first selected from a natural

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C.A. Weber, K.E. Maloney, and J.C. Sanford

The performance of 11 primocane fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivars was evaluated based on yield and fruit weight from the first three seasons compared to the eighth and ninth seasons, respectively. Plot vigor and cane density was evaluated in the eighth season. `Prelude', `Caroline', and `Heritage' did not show a decline in yield in the eighth season compared to the first three seasons. `Kiwigold', `Graton Gold' (sold as `Goldie'), `Watson' (sold as `Ruby'), `Autumn Bliss', `Anne, and `Amity' had substantial yield decreases from early production seasons ranging from -30% to -82%. `Kiwigold' had the highest yield of 4015 kg·ha-1 (3582.2 lb/acre) in the eighth season followed by `Caroline' at 3649 kg·ha-1 (3255.6 lb/acre), `Heritage' at 3614 kg·ha-1 (3224.4 lb/acre), and `Prelude' at 3591 kg·ha-1 (3203.9 lb/acre). Fruit weight did not vary significantly among years, but there were differences among cultivars. In the ninth season, `Ruby' had the largest fruit at 3.1 g (0.11 oz), followed by `Autumn Bliss' at 2.9 g (0.10 oz), and `Caroline' and `Prelude' at 2.8 g (0.10 oz). `Summit', `Goldie', and `Rossana' had the smallest fruit at 1.5 g (0.05 oz). `Goldie' was the most vigorous cultivar and `Anne' the least in the eighth season based on vigor ratings. `Rossana' had the highest cane density at 41.6 canes/m2 (3.86 canes/ft2). Seven of 11 cultivars had cane density of 32 canes/m2 (3.0 canes/ft2) or higher, which is sufficient to produce acceptable yields in cultivars suited to the region. Overall, `Prelude', `Caroline' and `Heritage' and its sports, `Kiwigold' and `Goldie', show the most potential for long production cycles in climates similar to western New York state.

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Brent Rowell, Terry Jones, and William Nesmith

Kentucky growers currently produce about 1300 acres of bell peppers worth $2 million for both fresh market and processing. Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria has been the scourge which continues to limit expansion of pepper production in the state. Fourteen new BLS-resistant varieties and experimental lines were evaluated together with two standard (susceptible) varieties in 1995 at two locations. All entries were exposed to an induced BLS epidemic at one location but were kept disease-free at the second location. Field resistance to four races of BLS was high for all but one of the lines tested, which claimed resistance to races 1, 2, and 3. Cultivars with resistance to only race 2 or races 1 and 2 of the pathogen were no different from susceptible checks in terms of yields and disease resistance. Six entries performed well at both locations; these will be included in further trials in 1996.

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M.J. Prado, S. Romo, M. Novo, M. Rey, M.T. Herrera, and M.V. González

We investigated the characterization of genotypes of Actinidia deliciosa (Chev.) Liang and Ferguson var. deliciosa by using isozymatic and molecular techniques [randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), standard AFLP, and modified AFLP]. Four genotypes were tested, the female cultivar `Hayward', the traditional New Zealand pollinizers `Matua' and `Tomuri', and a new pollinizer named clone A selected in a breeding program in Spain. PGI and PGM were the only isozymes that allowed us to distinguish the kiwifruit genotypes, although the accessions of `Matua' presented two different banding patterns for both isozymes. All three molecular markers differentiated between the genotypes of kiwifruit tested, although RAPD markers did not allow us to establish differences between accessions of `Matua', while both standard and modified AFLP did. These results, along with those of isozymes, support the hypothesis that the male kiwifruit genotypes present in Europe belong to different clones. None of the markers used showed differences between accessions of `Hayward', which would suggest that it is a uniform cultivar. On the other hand, clone A was a seedling derived from `Hayward' and an unknown pollinizer. The results obtained using AFLP markers strongly suggest that `Tomuri' may have been the male parent of clone A. A specific protocol for kiwifruit characterization based on a modified AFLP technique is also presented, that gave rise to the highest percentage of polymorphism while scoring the lowest number of bands. This, together with the technical features of modified AFLP markers, make them very useful for identifying propagated kiwifruit plant material in commercial nurseries.

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Carol D. Robacker and Sloane M. Scheiber

Abelia ×grandiflora is a drought-tolerant, pest-resistant, flowering shrub that has long been used as a foundation plant. Interspecific hybridization has produced seedlings with an assortment of morphological traits, allowing for development of new cultivars with unique or improved qualities. `Raspberry Profusion' and `Lavender Mist', developed at the University of Georgia, are seedling selections of `Edward Goucher' × Abelia chinensis. `Raspberry Profusion' is a very heavy and very early bloomer. Panicles are large and showy with fragrant pink flowers and raspberry-colored sepals. Flowering begins in early May and becomes very heavy by early June. The bright-colored sepals remain on the plant throughout the summer. Summer foliage is a medium to dark green color. In a pot, `Raspberry Profusion' blooms early and heavily. `Lavender Mist' is a heavy bloomer, with clusters of fragrant lavender flowers beginning in mid-June, and continuing into autumn. Sepals are a straw-green color at the base, becoming rose at the tips. Summer foliage is gray-green. `Lavender Mist' performs well in a pot, forming a gray-green mound contrasting with the lavender blossoms scattered around the plant. Leaves on both cultivars are glossy, particularly from mid-summer through autumn. Both plants tend to be mostly deciduous in the winter. Laboratory evaluations of cold hardiness in Griffin, Ga., during Winter 2003–04 revealed a mid-winter hardiness of –18 °C to –21 °C for `Raspberry Profusion' and –15 °C to –17 °C for `Lavender Mist'. These plants develop into dense compact shrubs following pruning and establishment in the landscape.