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C.A. Weber, K.E. Maloney, and J.C. Sanford

The performance of 11 primocane fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivars was evaluated based on yield and fruit weight from the first three seasons compared to the eighth and ninth seasons, respectively. Plot vigor and cane density was evaluated in the eighth season. `Prelude', `Caroline', and `Heritage' did not show a decline in yield in the eighth season compared to the first three seasons. `Kiwigold', `Graton Gold' (sold as `Goldie'), `Watson' (sold as `Ruby'), `Autumn Bliss', `Anne, and `Amity' had substantial yield decreases from early production seasons ranging from -30% to -82%. `Kiwigold' had the highest yield of 4015 kg·ha-1 (3582.2 lb/acre) in the eighth season followed by `Caroline' at 3649 kg·ha-1 (3255.6 lb/acre), `Heritage' at 3614 kg·ha-1 (3224.4 lb/acre), and `Prelude' at 3591 kg·ha-1 (3203.9 lb/acre). Fruit weight did not vary significantly among years, but there were differences among cultivars. In the ninth season, `Ruby' had the largest fruit at 3.1 g (0.11 oz), followed by `Autumn Bliss' at 2.9 g (0.10 oz), and `Caroline' and `Prelude' at 2.8 g (0.10 oz). `Summit', `Goldie', and `Rossana' had the smallest fruit at 1.5 g (0.05 oz). `Goldie' was the most vigorous cultivar and `Anne' the least in the eighth season based on vigor ratings. `Rossana' had the highest cane density at 41.6 canes/m2 (3.86 canes/ft2). Seven of 11 cultivars had cane density of 32 canes/m2 (3.0 canes/ft2) or higher, which is sufficient to produce acceptable yields in cultivars suited to the region. Overall, `Prelude', `Caroline' and `Heritage' and its sports, `Kiwigold' and `Goldie', show the most potential for long production cycles in climates similar to western New York state.

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Brent Rowell, Terry Jones, and William Nesmith

Kentucky growers currently produce about 1300 acres of bell peppers worth $2 million for both fresh market and processing. Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria has been the scourge which continues to limit expansion of pepper production in the state. Fourteen new BLS-resistant varieties and experimental lines were evaluated together with two standard (susceptible) varieties in 1995 at two locations. All entries were exposed to an induced BLS epidemic at one location but were kept disease-free at the second location. Field resistance to four races of BLS was high for all but one of the lines tested, which claimed resistance to races 1, 2, and 3. Cultivars with resistance to only race 2 or races 1 and 2 of the pathogen were no different from susceptible checks in terms of yields and disease resistance. Six entries performed well at both locations; these will be included in further trials in 1996.

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M.J. Prado, S. Romo, M. Novo, M. Rey, M.T. Herrera, and M.V. González

We investigated the characterization of genotypes of Actinidia deliciosa (Chev.) Liang and Ferguson var. deliciosa by using isozymatic and molecular techniques [randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), standard AFLP, and modified AFLP]. Four genotypes were tested, the female cultivar `Hayward', the traditional New Zealand pollinizers `Matua' and `Tomuri', and a new pollinizer named clone A selected in a breeding program in Spain. PGI and PGM were the only isozymes that allowed us to distinguish the kiwifruit genotypes, although the accessions of `Matua' presented two different banding patterns for both isozymes. All three molecular markers differentiated between the genotypes of kiwifruit tested, although RAPD markers did not allow us to establish differences between accessions of `Matua', while both standard and modified AFLP did. These results, along with those of isozymes, support the hypothesis that the male kiwifruit genotypes present in Europe belong to different clones. None of the markers used showed differences between accessions of `Hayward', which would suggest that it is a uniform cultivar. On the other hand, clone A was a seedling derived from `Hayward' and an unknown pollinizer. The results obtained using AFLP markers strongly suggest that `Tomuri' may have been the male parent of clone A. A specific protocol for kiwifruit characterization based on a modified AFLP technique is also presented, that gave rise to the highest percentage of polymorphism while scoring the lowest number of bands. This, together with the technical features of modified AFLP markers, make them very useful for identifying propagated kiwifruit plant material in commercial nurseries.

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Alan W. Meerow, Timothy K. Broschat, and Michael E. Kane

An amaryllis breeding program using diploid species not represented in commercial tetraploid cultivars has been underway since 1988. Objectives are to develop evergreen cultivars with attractive foliage and fragrant flowers of novel form and coloration. Five crosses with Hippeastrum papilio as a parent were evaluated at first flowering in the spring of 1990. The F-1's showed significant variation, suggestive of high heterozygosity within the parental genomes. Several natural tetraploids were identified among the progeny. Superior selections were made, and sib- or intercrosses accomplished. We estimate that a minimum of 50% genes from H. papilio will need to be maintained to guarantee evergreen foliage in the progeny. Superior F-1's have also been crossed with fragrant, trumpet-flowered primary hybrids, and new primary F-1's are being generated with H. papilio and these species or their hybrids, as well as with H. reticulatum var. striatifolium. A percentage of these germinated seedlings have been treated with colchicine to induce polyploidy. The best F-1 selections are also being micropropagated, and induction of polyploidy will be attempted in a percentage of the subcultures.

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Richard L. Bell, T. van der Zwet, C.K. Chandler, and J.C. Scheerens

`Potomac' has been released as a new pear cultivar which combines a high level of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. Selected from a cross of `Moonglow' × `Beurre d'Anjou', it was tested under the seedling number, US 62537-048. Fruit are ovate-pyriform in shape, and average 73mm in diameter. Skin color is light green and the finish is glossy at harvest maturity, which occurs about 2 weeks after `Bartlett'. Flesh texture is moderately fine, buttery, and juicy; grit cells are small and limited to a thin layer under the skin. Flavor is subacid, with mild aroma, and similar in character to `Beurre d'Anjou'. Fruit may be ripened after harvest without cold storage, but `Potomac' is more susceptible to superficial scald than Beurre d'Anjou if stored for more than eight weeks. The tree is moderately vigorous. Yield and precocity are moderate. Fire blight resistance is greater than that of `Seckel', with a high degree of resistance in both shoots and blossoms. The cultivar is recommended for home orchards and limited commercial trial.

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Carol D. Robacker and Sloane M. Scheiber

Abelia ×grandiflora is a drought-tolerant, pest-resistant, flowering shrub that has long been used as a foundation plant. Interspecific hybridization has produced seedlings with an assortment of morphological traits, allowing for development of new cultivars with unique or improved qualities. `Raspberry Profusion' and `Lavender Mist', developed at the University of Georgia, are seedling selections of `Edward Goucher' × Abelia chinensis. `Raspberry Profusion' is a very heavy and very early bloomer. Panicles are large and showy with fragrant pink flowers and raspberry-colored sepals. Flowering begins in early May and becomes very heavy by early June. The bright-colored sepals remain on the plant throughout the summer. Summer foliage is a medium to dark green color. In a pot, `Raspberry Profusion' blooms early and heavily. `Lavender Mist' is a heavy bloomer, with clusters of fragrant lavender flowers beginning in mid-June, and continuing into autumn. Sepals are a straw-green color at the base, becoming rose at the tips. Summer foliage is gray-green. `Lavender Mist' performs well in a pot, forming a gray-green mound contrasting with the lavender blossoms scattered around the plant. Leaves on both cultivars are glossy, particularly from mid-summer through autumn. Both plants tend to be mostly deciduous in the winter. Laboratory evaluations of cold hardiness in Griffin, Ga., during Winter 2003–04 revealed a mid-winter hardiness of –18 °C to –21 °C for `Raspberry Profusion' and –15 °C to –17 °C for `Lavender Mist'. These plants develop into dense compact shrubs following pruning and establishment in the landscape.

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Ching-San Kuan, Tan-Cha Lee, Meng-Hsun Tsai, Hui-Wen Tsai, and Chia-Hui Tang

‘Tainung No. 22’ (TNG.22, ♀ ‘Smooth Cayenne’ × ♂ ‘Tainung No. 8’), also known as ‘Honey Fragrance’, was a new pineapple cultivar released by the Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, on Feb. 2012. The fruit

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Nirmal K. Hedau, Shri Dhar, Vinay Mahajan, Pawan K. Agarwal, and Jagdish C. Bhatt

‘VL Tamatar 4’ ( Solanum lycopersicum or Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is a new tomato cultivar released for Agro-ecological Zone I (Uttarakhand, Northwest Himalaya, India). It was developed by a pure-line selection method from the exotic

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Rebecca Grube Sideman

bell pepper cultivar trials conducted in Iowa ( Taber et al., 2009 ), Indiana ( Maynard and Calsoyas, 2015 ), New York ( Reid et al., 2011 ), and Pennsylvania ( Bogash and Elkner, 2011 ). In northern New England, bell pepper cultivars have been compared

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Chia-Hui Tang, Ching-Shan Kuan, Su-Feng Roan, Chin-Lung Lee, Jer-Way Chang, and Iou-Zen Chen

of superior pineapple lines and varieties, with a focus on developing a shorter plant and improving fruit quality in summer. In 2018, a new cultivar was obtained, released as Tainung No. 23; it was selected from a hybridization population and