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Cecil Pounders, Tim Rinehart, Ned Edwards, and Patricia Knight

environmental parameters for a population ( Kempthorne, 1956 ; Pederson, 1972 ). Various studies using loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) have indicated that selection based on additive and dominance genetic variance for growth traits at early ages can be

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Dennis N. Katuuramu, W. Patrick Wechter, Marcellus L. Washington, Matthew Horry, Matthew A. Cutulle, Robert L. Jarret, and Amnon Levi

Washington state HortScience 50 1332 1337 Yan, W. Fregeau-Reid, J. 2008 Breeding line selection based on multiple traits Crop Sci. 48 417 423 Yanyan, Y. Wang, S. Wei, M. Gong, B. Shi, Q. 2018 Effect of different rootstocks on the salt stress tolerance in

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David Rudell

injury may vary as a result of interactions among multiple pathways responsible for injury exacerbation or amelioration ( Whitaker, 2004 ). Conversely, changes in the levels of individual metabolites could tangibly impact the complex traits such as color

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Jason Prothro, Katherine Sandlin, Hussein Abdel-Haleem, Eleni Bachlava, Victoria White, Steven Knapp, and Cecilia McGregor

trait for selection in these cultivars with a seed width of ≈11 mm desired for profitability ( Zhang, 1996a ). Watermelon seed size has traditionally been divided into qualitative categories as being large, medium, small, tomato, or tiny ( Hawkins et al

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Craig Hardner, João Costa e Silva, Emlyn Williams, Noel Meyers, and Cameron McConchie

is determined by multiple traits, as there may be different trait combinations with the same overall worth. Selection index contrasts to the concept of an ideotype, which defines a single selection target of trait combinations. Selection index is also

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Haofeng Chen, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Shizhong Xu, and Michael T. Clegg

understanding of the genetic determination of economically important traits. Usually commercially important traits of avocado, such as tree growth rate, fruit precocity, fruit quality, flavor, and so on, are controlled by multiple genes, and those of large

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Dennis T. Ray, Maren Elizabeth Veatch-Blohm, Valerie Hunter Teetor, and Bruce Walsh

different morphological traits. Correlations between traits aid in selection by using nondestructive measurements, such as plant height or width, to indirectly select for traits like rubber and resin content, which would otherwise involve destructive

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Peter J. Zale, Daniel K. Struve, Pablo Jourdan, and David M. Francis

dominance. Selection for late flowering may be further complicated by the low heritabilities for growth traits and moderate heritability for late flowering. Low heritabilities for these traits suggested that optimal nursery conditions were the major factors

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Cristina Pisani, Mark A. Ritenour, Ed Stover, Anne Plotto, Rocco Alessandro, David N. Kuhn, and Raymond J. Schnell

in Dec. 2013 ( Pisani et al., 2014 ) to practice fruit preparation and ballot development, based on a study by Obenland et al. (2012) . In 2014, nine avocado selections were chosen based on good horticultural and postharvest traits and were evaluated

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Isabelle Y. Delannay, Jack E. Staub, and Jin Feng Chen

their allelic frequencies. Because of trait variability observed in the BC 1 generation ( Delannay, 2009 ) and the marker-based heterogeneity of BC 1 plants, marker-assisted selection (MAS) was not practiced on BC 2 progeny. About eight seeds