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Francesco Montemurro, Angelo Fiore, Gabriele Campanelli, Fabio Tittarelli, Luigi Ledda, and Stefano Canali

.R. 1970 Automatic methods for determining nitrate and nitrite in water and soil extracts Analyst (Lond.) 95 514 518 Hiltbrunner, J. Liedgens, M. Bloch, L. Stamp, P. Streit, B. 2007 Legume cover crops as living mulches for winter wheat: Components of

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William Sciarappa, Sridhar Polavarapu, James Barry, Peter Oudemans, Mark Ehlenfeldt, Gary Pavlis, Dean Polk, and Robert Holdcraft

today include selection for resistant varieties, adding organic amendments in building soil such as peat and humus, raised mounds for disease suppression, mulching for weed control and water conservation, “rogueing” of infected plants, pruning for canopy

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Michael J. Adler and Carlene A. Chase

cover crops as living mulches for part or all of the cash cropping season ( Teasdale, 1998 ) and by retention of cover crop residue as organic mulch in a subsequent cash crop ( Hutchinson and McGiffen, 2000 ). Our findings complement the results from a

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Matthew J. Leavitt, Craig C. Sheaffer, Donald L. Wyse, and Deborah L. Allan

HortTechnology 15 238 243 Walters, S.A. Young, B. 2008 Utility of winter rye living mulch for weed management in zucchini squash production Weed Technol. 22 724 728 White, R.H. Worsham, A.D. Blum, U. 1989 Allelopathic potential of legume debris and aqueous

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Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, David Granatstein, Lori Hoagland, and John P. Reganold

efficiency in organic apple production. Integrating organic mulches and cover crops into apple production systems has been proposed to improve yields, nutrient availability, and long-term orchard sustainability ( Granatstein and Mullinix, 2008 ). Organic

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Edina Pászti Mendelné and Ákos Mendel

(5 m between the trees and 8 m between the rows). Living mulch between the rows was sown with grass during the next fall. The irrigation has not yet been resolved. Pruning is performed twice per year, as is foliar fertilization. Plant protection is

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Barbara J. Smith

strawberry transplants and only rarely from other diseased fruit or vegetable hosts. Anthracnose spreads within a field by splashing water, and living mulches (such as wheat, rye, or rye grass) in row middles have been shown to reduce disease spread within

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Mary Ruth McDonald and Sean M. Westerveld

reducing soil temperatures for other crops ( Davis et al., 1970 ) and may minimize clubroot if mulches can be incorporated into the production system. Other strategies could include timely irrigation or living mulches. It is also possible that season

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John E. Montoya Jr., Michael A. Arnold, Juliana Rangel, Larry R. Stein, and Marco A. Palma

a living mulch occurred, at which point weed management was conducted in the perennial companion plant rows only, as needed. Perennial plant species were all in flower or beginning flowering when planted to the field and flowered throughout the

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Matthew D. Stevens, Brent L. Black, John D. Lea-Cox, and Dillon Feuz

between rows, and using living mulches between rows can be effective as well. However, in this study, hand weeding within rows accounted for the majority of the labor expense. Currently, most herbicides are not viable options for control of within