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Aref A. Abdul-Baki, S. A. Haroon, and R. N. Huettel

Susceptibility of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotpyes to the root-knot nematode Meloydogyne incognita and to heat stress can be evaluated in a single labor- and time-saving operation using a nondestructive in vitro excised root technique. Seeds are sterilized and germinated for 2 days on 1% water agar. Five-mm root sections are grown at 28 and 35 C for 30 days on Gamborg-B medium with and without nematode inoculum. Evaluation criteria include fresh and dry weight and the appearance of juveniles, adults, gulls, and egg masses. Evidence will be presented on the breakdown of resistance to M. incognita under high temperature stress.

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Todd P. West, Samuel L. DeMarais, and Chiwon W. Lee

.A. Remphrey, W.R. 1993 In vitro germination of three Cypridedium species in relation to time of seed collection, media, and cold treatment Can. J. Bot. 71 879 885 10.1139/b93-100 Dirr, M.A. 2009 Manual of woody landscape plants. 6th ed. Stipes Publ

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Leticia Santos-Hernández, Martha Martínez-García, Jorge E. Campos, and Ernesto Aguirre-León

1 To whom reprint request should be addressed; e-mail eall@servidor.unam.mx . We thank the people and local governments of six communities of the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Valley for their guidance and help in the field

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Boris Andrés Bran Barrientos and Jong-Yi Fang

orchid species. Successful in vitro seed germination has been reported for S. plicata using various medium formulations. Hossain and Dey (2013) found that the maximum seed germination percentage was observed with the Phytamax medium (95%) followed by

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Yung-I. Lee, Chia-Fu Lu, Mei-Chu Chung, Edward C. Yeung, and Nean Lee

vitro ( Lee, 2003 ). We attempted to gain a better insight into the role of endogenous ABA in orchid seeds, and the relationship between ABA and various pretreatments before germination. The objectives of this study are to 1) document key anatomic

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Scott Reid, Judy Harrington, and Harrison Hughes

Distichlis spicata var. stricta (Torrey) Beetle is a native grass that tolerates salt, high pH, and some heavy metals. It has been proposed for use in several challenging environments, including mine spoils and salt-impacted areas of golf courses. But, its widespread use has been hindered by several factors, one of which is poor seed set. Because chromosome numbers are variable and some genotypes are aneuploids, there was concern that pollen viability in some genotypes was low. Pollen from several genotypes failed to germinate in vitro on four artificial media prepared with various levels of osmoticum. However, hand pollination in vivo resulted in profuse pollen germination for all genotypes tested. Germination on pollinated stigmas was observed at intervals beginning 2 h after pollination with a fluorescence microscope using aniline blue and acridine orange stains and in bright field using toluidine-O stain. Very young stigmas seemed unreceptive and, while pollen would germinate, the pollen tubes would not grow down through the style. On receptive stigmas, many pollen tubes grew down toward the egg and some reached it within 24 h. There was no evidence of impaired fertility. Aniline blue was the best method for observing pollen tube growth through the style, although toluidine-O was adequate for observing germination on the stigmatic surface.

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R.B. Rogers, M.A.L. Smith, and R. Cowen

The only method for large scale production of pure hybrid seed in Zinnia elegans involves the use of male sterile individuals. The male sterile trait, however, is a three gene recessive which at best produces only 50% male sterile progeny from seed. Since no method of clonal propagation is available, seed-produced female lines require labor intensive field roguing to insure removal of all normal flowered individuals. Clonal micropropagation was investigated as a means of mass producing male steriles for use as female lines. Sterilization procedures were developed for seed and axillary bud explants. Shoot proliferation media containing various levels of BAP, 2ip, and kinetin were screened using in vitro germinated seedling explants of the inbred line `Orange Starlight'. Microshoots demonstrated a high rooting percentage after 2 weeks on basal medium without growth regulators. Plantlets were easily acclimated in 1 to 2 weeks in a high humidity environment. In vitro derived plants of identified male sterile plants were phenotypically evaluated as to their suitability for use in field production.

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R.B. Rogers, M.A.L. Smith, and R. Cowen

The only method for large scale production of pure hybrid seed in Zinnia elegans involves the use of male sterile individuals. The male sterile trait, however, is a three gene recessive which at best produces only 50% male sterile progeny from seed. Since no method of clonal propagation is available, seed-produced female lines require labor intensive field roguing to insure removal of all normal flowered individuals. Clonal micropropagation was investigated as a means of mass producing male steriles for use as female lines. Sterilization procedures were developed for seed and axillary bud explants. Shoot proliferation media containing various levels of BAP, 2ip, and kinetin were screened using in vitro germinated seedling explants of the inbred line `Orange Starlight'. Microshoots demonstrated a high rooting percentage after 2 weeks on basal medium without growth regulators. Plantlets were easily acclimated in 1 to 2 weeks in a high humidity environment. In vitro derived plants of identified male sterile plants were phenotypically evaluated as to their suitability for use in field production.

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Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis and Maria Papafotiou

, San Diego, CA Bertsouklis, K.F. Papafotiou, M. 2009 In vitro propagation of Arbutus andrachne L Acta Hort. 813 477 480 Bertsouklis, K.F. Papafotiou, M. 2010 Effect of storage on Arbutus andrachne L. seed germination Acta Hort. 885 65 71

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Luisa Santamaria and Sherry Kitto

Solanum quitoense, also known as naranjilla or lulo, is a native species of Ecuador and Colombia. Its value is based on the uncommon sweet-sour flavor of its fruits, which is appreciated in the national and international markets. The worst problem for this crop is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The main objective of our research is to develop root-knot nematode–resistant naranjilla via somaclonal variation. Seeds of Solanum quitoense `Baeza' germinated quicker than those of `Dulce'. Seeds given a 2-week dark treatment had 100% germination compared to 75% germination for seeds placed under lights (16-h photoperiod, 60 mmol·m–2s–1). Single-node explants proliferated an average of nine nodes after 1 month of culture. Microcuttings (two nodes, 3.5 cm) stuck in sand and placed under a humidity dome under mist had an average of five roots averaging 25 cm in length after 3 weeks. Stems regenerated shoots better than petioles or leaves and explant orientation/polarity had no effect on regeneration. Root cultures of Solanum quitoense inoculated in vitro with Meloidogyne incognita showed susceptibility to root-knot nematodes.