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Kshitij Khatri, Natalia Peres, Joseph Noling, and Nathan Boyd

plastic. The backpack sprayer was calibrated to deliver 0.78 L·min −1 and was equipped with a single flat-fan nozzle (8002VS; Teejet Spraying Systems Co., Glendale Heights, IL) at 35 psi. Beds were covered with virtually impermeable film (Blockade; Berry

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Rebecca C.-C. Hsu and Yung-I Lee

materials, or lignin, may deposit on the seedcoat and contribute to the hydrophobic nature of mature seeds ( Carlson, 1940 ; Lee et al., 2005 ; Yeung et al., 1996 ). These factors may bring about the impermeability of mature seeds and result in low seed

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Bret Sparks, Gregg Munshaw, David Williams, Michael Barrett, Jeffrey Beasley, and Paul Woosley

, 2012b ). Fertilizer applied off target onto impermeable surfaces such as driveways and sidewalks is a common source of NPS in the urban landscape ( Arnold and Gibbons, 1996 ). Nitrogen applied in highly soluble forms, such as the inorganic N form urea

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Kwang Jin Kim, Eun Ha Yoo, Myeong Il Jeong, Jeong Seob Song, Seung Youn Lee, and Stanley J. Kays

temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity. The test chambers were made of inert materials (i.e., glass surfaces, stainless steel frame, and Teflon) that were impermeable to VOCs. Chamber doors were sealed using an adhesive closed-pore neoprene foam

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Alison E. Heather, Hector E. Pérez, and Sandra B. Wilson

recognized in seeds. Physical dormancy results from water-impermeable seed coats or fruit coats. Seeds with embryos that are undifferentiated or underdeveloped at shedding and require time for further development before germination are considered

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Yujie Yang, Donglin Zhang, Zhihui Li, Xiaoling Jin, and Jinying Dong

low germination rate and long germination time. It usually takes 2–3 years to overcome the double dormancy of the hard, impermeable seedcoat and immature embryos ( Dirr and Heuser, 2006 ; Hu et al., 1979 ). Pretreatment at room temperature for 2

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Patrick J. Conner

higher rates in the second experiment. Mechanically scarifying seeds by nicking the seedcoat did not improve germination, suggesting that dormancy is not controlled by the impermeability of the seedcoat. Leaching the seeds after stratification was also

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RATES FOR BELL PEPPER PRODUCTION Reducing application rates of methyl bromide can allow mulched-pepper growers to survive while suitable alternatives to the soil fumigant are found. Santos et al. (p. 596 ) determined that using virtually impermeable

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Dong Sub Kim, Steven B. Kim, Mike Stanghellini, Melody Meyer-Jertberg, and Steven A. Fennimore

complete block design. Treatments included MB:Pic 57:43 covered with high-density polyethylene (HDPE), MB:Pic 45:55 covered with totally impermeable film (TIF), and steam. Steam was applied using the Southern Turf Nurseries applicator on 6 Sept. 2018, and

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Mary C. Stevens, Rui Yang, and Joshua H. Freeman

molecule is roughly 53% nitrogen. All treatments were applied as a liquid, which quickly vaporizes, under 0.32-mm thick, white-on-black, totally impermeable film (Guardian Agricultural Plastics Corporation, Tampa, FL), using shank injection 25 cm below the