Highly treated sewage effluent water increasingly is being used for agricultural irrigation. This reclaimed water is presently being used in a large citrus irrigation project in central Florida. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high application rates of reclaimed water on growth and leaf mineral content of young citrus trees. High application rates (1270 and 2540 mm per year) of reclaimed wastewater were compared to a normal recommended rate of 406 mm per year of either reclaimed or well water. Tree growth was greater at the higher application rates, but these rates also promoted greater weed growth. With reclaimed water, leaf Na, Cl, and K contents generally increased with increasing irrigation rate, but these levels remained well below levels that would cause plant damage. Leaf Cl accumulation was much higher in `Hamlin' orange than `Orlando' tangelo. Rootstock also affected leaf Na and Cl accumulation. Reclaimed water appears to be a useful alternative to well water for citrus irrigation.
Larry R. Parsons and T. Adair Wheaton
B.T. Scully, D.H. Wallace, and D.R. Viands
One-hundred-twelve common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines of diverse origin were grown in three environments in 1986 and two environments in 1987. The purpose was to estimate broad-sense heritabilities of nine yield-related traits and the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations among them. The traits and their heritabilities were seed yield (0.90), biomass (0.93), harvest index (0.92), days to maturity (0.96), days to flower (0.98), days of pod fill (0.94), biomass growth rate (biomass/days to maturity) (0.87), seed growth rate (seed yield/days of pod fill) (0.87), and economic growth rate (seed yield/days to maturity) (0.86). These high heritabilities were attributed to the broad genetic diversity and the comparatively small variances associated with the genotype × environment interactions. Genetic correlations of yield were: with biomass, 0.86; harvest index, 0.42; days to maturity, 0.40; days to flower, 0.33; days of pod fill, 0.24; biomass growth rate, 0.92; seed growth rate, 0.84; and the economic growth rate, 0.85. The concomitant phenotypic correlations were mostly equal to the genetic correlations for biomass and the three growth rates, but lower for the phonological traits (days to maturity, flower, and pod fill). Harvest index had the lowest correlations with yield. Correlations were also reported for the other 28 pairwise combinations among these nine traits. Indirect selection was explored with yield as the primary trait and the other eight as secondary traits. Estimates of relative selection efficiency (p) suggested that indirect selection was not a viable option for increasing common bean yields or identifying superior parents.
B.T. Scully and D.H. Wallace
A diverse set of 112 common bean (Paseolus vulgaris L.) accessions were evaluated for variation in eight traits related to yield over a 2-year period. Days to flower, days of pod fill, and days to maturity ranged from 25 to 66, 44 to 83, and 70 to 133, respectively, in upstate New York: Yield and biomass ranged from 81 to 387 and 270 to 1087 g•m-2, respectively. Harvest index ranged from 12% to 65%. The biomass (biomass/days to maturity) and seed (yield/days of pod fill) growth rates ranged from 3.2 to 9.3 and 1.2 to 9.5 g•m-2 -day-1, respectively. The economic growth rate (yield/days to maturity) extended from 0.6 to 5.7 g•m-2 -day-1. The growth rates, biomass, and days of pod fill were linearly and positively related to yield. Biomass and the growth rates explained a large amount of the variation in yield, with r 2 values between 0.71 and 0.84; days of pod fill explained the least, with r 2 = 0.09. Yield followed a curvilinear relationship with days to flower and days to maturity; yield was maximized at 48.5 days to flower and 112.2 days to maturity. Yield was a quadratic function of harvest index and maximized at 57.2%. Among these three curvilinear traits, days to flower explained 80% of the variation in yield, while days to maturity and harvest index accounted for 25% and 12.5%, respectively. The “ideal” genotype for New York was defined at these maximum values for harvest index, days to maturity, days to flower, and at 63.7 days of pod fill. Additionally, a simple equation is proposed to aid breeders in the selection of common bean accessions with strong sink strength. It is defined as “relative sink strength”: RSS = seed growth rate/biomass growth rate. Values > 1.0 implied strong sink capacity in common beans.
Laura Guazzelli, Frederick S. Davies, and James J. Ferguson
Our objectives were to determine if leaf N concentration in citrus nursery trees affected subsequent growth responses to fertilization for the first 2 years after planting and how N fertilizer rate affected soil nitrate-N concentration. `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on `Swingle' citrumelo rootstock [C. paradisi Macf. × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.] were purchased from commercial nurseries and grown in the greenhouse at differing N rates. Three to five months later trees were separated into three groups (low, medium, high) based on leaf N concentration and planted in the field in Oct. 1992 (Expt. 1) or Apr. 1993 (Expt. 2). Trees were fertilized with granular material (8N–2.6P–6.6K) with N at 0 to 0.34 kg/tree yearly. Soil nitrate-N levels were also determined in Expt. 2. Preplant leaf N concentration in the nursery varied from 1.4% to 4.1% but had no effect on trunk diameter, height, shoot growth, and number or dry weight in year 1 (Expt. 1) or years 1 and 2 (Expt. 2) in the field. Similarly, N fertilizer rate had no effect on growth during year 1 in the field. However, trunk diameter increased with increasing N rate in year 2 and reached a maximum with N at 0.17 kg/tree yearly. Shoot number during the second growth flush in year 2 was much lower for nonfertilized vs. fertilized trees. Leaf N concentrations increased during the season for trees with initially low levels even for trees receiving low fertilizer rates. Soil nitrate-N levels were highest at the 0.34-kg rate, and lowest at the 0.11-kg rate. Nitrate-N levels decreased rapidly in the root zone within 2 to 3 weeks of fertilizing.
Laura Guazzelli, Frederick S. Davies, and James J. Ferguson
Our objectives were to determine the effects of leaf N concentration in citrus nursery trees on subsequent growth responses to fertilization for the first 2 years after planting and the impact of N fertilizer rate on soil NO3-N concentration. `Hamlin' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on `Swingle' citrumelo rootstock [C. paradisi Macf. × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.] were purchased from commercial nurseries in Apr. 1992 (Expt. 1) and Jan. 1993 (Expt. 2) and were grown in the greenhouse at differing N rates. Five months later, trees for each experiment were separated into three groups (low, medium, and high) based on leaf N concentration and were planted in the field in Oct. 1992 (Expt. 1) or Apr. 1993 (Expt. 2). Trees were fertilized with granular material (8N-2.6P-6.6K-2Mg-0.2Mn-0.12Cu-0.27Zn-1.78Fe) with N at 0, 0.11, 0.17, 0.23, 0.28, or 0.34 kg/tree per year. Soil NO3-N levels were determined at 0- to 15- and 16- to 30-cm depths for the 0.11-, 0.23-, and 0.34-kg rates over the first two seasons in Expt. 2. Preplant leaf N concentration in the nursery varied from 1.4% (Expt. 1) to 4.1% (Expt. 2) but had no effect on trunk diameter, height, shoot growth and number, or dry weight in year 1 (Expt. 1) or years 1 and 2 (Expt. 2) in the field. Similarly, fertilizer rate in the field had no effect on growth during year 1 in the field. However, trunk diameter increased with increasing N rate in year 2 and reached a maximum with N at 0.17 kg/tree per year but decreased at higher rates. Shoot number during the second growth flush in year 2 was much lower for nonfertilized vs. fertilized trees at all rates, which had similar shoot numbers. Nevertheless, leaf N concentrations increased during the season for trees with initially low levels, even for trees receiving low fertilizer rates. This suggests translocation of N from other organs to leaves. Soil NO3-N levels were highest for the 0.34-kg rate and lowest at the 0.11-kg rate. Within 2 to 3 weeks of fertilizing, NO3-N levels decreased rapidly in the root zone.
Michael Raviv, J. Heinrich Lieth, David W. Burger, and Rony Wallach
Physical characteristics of two media were studied concerning water availability to roots, as reflected in specific transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and specific growth rate of very young leaflets of `Kardinal' rose (Rosa ×hybrida L.), grafted on Rosa canina L. `Natal Brier'. Plants were grown in UC mix [42% composted fir bark, 33% peat, and 25% sand (by volume)] or in coconut coir. Water release curves of the media were developed and hydraulic conductivities were calculated. Irrigation pulses were actuated according to predetermined media moisture tensions. Transpiration rate of plants was measured gravimetrically using load cells. Specific transpiration rate (STR) was calculated from these data and leaf area. STR and stomatal conductance were also determined using a steady-state porometer. Specific growth rate (RSG) of young leaflets was calculated from the difference between metabolic heat rate and respiration rate, which served as an indicator for growth potential. Low STR values found at tensions between 0 and 1.5 kPa in UC mix suggest this medium has insufficient free air space for proper root activity within this range. Above 2.3 kPa, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of UC mix was lower than that of coir, possibly lowering STR values of UC mix-grown plants. As a result of these two factors, STR of plants grown in coir was 20% to 30% higher than that of plants grown in UC mix. STR of coir-grown plants started to decline only at tensions around 4.5 kPa. Yield (number of flowers produced) by coir-grown plants was 19% higher than UC mix-grown plants. This study demonstrated the crucial role of reaching sufficient air-filled porosity in the medium shortly after irrigation. It also suggests that hydraulic conductivity is a more representative measure of water availability than tension.
T. Kozai, K. Yoshinaga, and C. Kubota
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] has been cultivated and recognized as an important crop in many countries, including Japan. Leafy node cuttings originated from virus-free, micropropagated mother plants are widely used for propagation of sweetpotato. In the present study, plant growth and cutting propagation rates as affected by atmospheric CO2 concentration and cutting preparation (single- or multi-node cutting) were investigated. Cuttings of `Beniazuma' sweetpotato were hydroponically cultured with or without carbon dioxide enrichment (CDE) under controlled greenhouse environment. Carbon dioxide concentration inside the greenhouse was either 1000 μmol·mol–1 with CDE or 300 μmol·mol–1 without CDE. Air temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 30 ± 1C and 80 ± 10%, respectively. Growth and development rates of the cuttings were analyzed on 20th day after start of the experiment. CDE enhanced fresh and dry weights per cutting. Propagation parameters (fresh and dry weights per single mother vine, leaf development rate, and cutting propagation rate) were greater when started from single-node cuttings than from multi-node cuttings, either with or without CDE. Shoot tip removal reduced leaf development and cutting propagation rates, but it did not affect the fresh and dry weights.
Kirk W. Pomper, Desmond R. Layne, and Eddie B. Reed
Growth of pawpaw (Asimina triloba) seedlings in containers was examined in a factorial greenhouse experiment with four treatment levels of the slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote 14-14-14 (14N- 6.1P-11.6K), incorporated in Pro-Mix BX potting substrate at 0, 0.13, 0.26 or 0.81 kg·m-3 (0, 0.22, 0.44, or 1.37 lb/yard3) and three treatment levels of liquid-feed fertilizer of Peters 20-20-20 (20N-8.7P-16.6K) water-soluble fertilizer at 0, 250, or 500 mg·L-1 (ppm). When plants were harvested 18 weeks after sowing, seedlings subjected to the highest rate of Osmocote 14-14-14 at 0.81 kg·m-3 and liquid-feed at 500 mg·L-1 had the greatest total biomass, about 3-fold greater than nonfertilized plants. In a separate greenhouse experiment, growth of seedlings was examined with Osmocote 14-14-14 as the sole fertilizer source at six treatment levels of: 0, 0.81, 2.22, 4.43, 8.86, or 17.7 kg·m-3 (0, 1.37, 3.74, 7.47, 14.9, or 29.9 lb/yard3). Early seedling growth was hastened in the 2.22 kg·m-3 treatment rate, but delayed in 17.7 kg·m-3 treatment rate, when compared to nonfertilized control plants. When seedlings were harvested 17 weeks after sowing, plants had the greatest shoot, root, and total dry weight with Osmocote 14-14-14 at a rate of 2.22 kg·m-3. Root:shoot ratio decreased from about 1.5 without Osmocote 14-14-14, to about 0.65 at rates of 2.22 kg·m-3 or greater. Based on the results of this study, the slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote 14-14-14, can be used effectively as a sole fertilizer source when incorporated into potting substrate at a rate of 2.22 kg·m-3 or at a reduced rate of 0.81 kg·m-3 when supplemented with weekly applications of liquid-feed fertilizer at a rate of 500 mg·L-1 of Peters 20-20-20, to enhance production of container-grown pawpaw seedlings.
Jeffrey Adelberg, Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Chalermpol Kirdmanee, and Toyoki Kozai
Growth and net photosynthetic rates of shoots of a triploid melon clone, `(L-14 × B) × L-14', were observed over 21 days following transfer from a multiplication MS medium containing 3% sucrose and 10 μM BA to a shoot development medium containing 1 μM BA at varying levels of sucrose in the medium (0%, 1%, and 3%), and light (50, 100, and 150 PPF) and CO2 (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) in the headspace. Largest numbers of shoot buds were observed in media with 3% sucrose. Increased light and CO2 had a positive interactive effect. Fresh and dry weights were greatest at highest levels of sucrose, light, and CO2. Although there was less growth in the absence of sucrose, fresh or dry weight of shoot buds grown without sucrose in the media still doubled over the 21 days of culture. Net photosynthetic rates of buds were negative 4 days after initiation of culture and approximately zero after 20 days of treatment. When transferring buds to fresh, sugar-free media, net photosynthetic rates became highly positive. Buds that had been cultured in the absence of sucrose and at highest light levels had the highest net photosynthesis rates upon transfer to fresh, sugar-free media.
A.K. Alva and D.P.H. Tucker
Recent trends in increased nitrate contamination of groundwater in parts of Central Florida have prompted this study to evaluate the potential for reducing the rates of nitrate (N) fertilizer to citrus. `Pineapple' orange trees on Swingle citrumelo rootstock growing on Candler fine sand were selected for the study. Fertilizer blends were applied using N as: (1) soluble ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate in 4 applications per year and (2) controlled-release sources (Meister, Osmocote, Escote in one application per year and IBDU and Neutralene in 2 applications per year). Nitrogen rates varied 18-154, 36-308, and 57-454 g/tree/year during the first, second and third year after planting, respectively. Tree growth and leaf mineral concentrations (during the first 3 years) and fruit size and juice quality (second and third years) were not adversely affected by application of reduced N rates. Fruit yield (third year) was lower in the trees which received ≤ 114 g N/tree/year than in those which received higher rates of N.