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Augusto Trejo-Gonzalez and Marita Cantwell

A lime solution is an efficient starch gelatinization agent during the traditional process of nixtamalization of corn for tortilla production. Although the saturated Ca(OH)2 solution is usually heated to speed the process, similar physical-chemical changes occur to corn steeped at room temperature. In addition, the steeped grains are capable of rapid germination. In this study we explored whether, in barley grains subjected to the same steeping conditions, there would be an acceleration of biochemical changes for the production of malt. Barley grains cv. Esmeralda six-row were steeped in saturated solutions of lime from 0% to 2% (w/w) at 18 to 23 °C for up to 72 hours. After treatment, the grains were washed with water and placed in a germination cabinet at 20 ± 2 °C and 90% RH for up to 96 hours to germinate. Activity of α-amylase (U/mg protein), sprout length (cm), seed viability (tetrazolium test), and respiration rates were determined. Scanning electron micrographs were prepared. There was a very rapid uptake of lime solution by the barley grains during the first 30 hours of treatment. The barley grains were 98% viable after all periods of steeping. Grains steeped 24 hours and germinated 70 hours had the highest activity of α-amylase, longest sprout length and highest percentage of germination. Under SEM, chemical gelatinization of starch grains was observed in barley sections after different steeping treatments, and starch breakdown was observed in grains during germination. No fungal growth was observed during germination after the steeping treatments. These results demonstrate that steeping in lime solutions could shorten the period required for barley germination and similar conditions may be useful for germination of other cereal and vegetable seeds.

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Philip J. White, John E. Bradshaw, M. Finlay, B. Dale, Gavin Ramsay, John P. Hammond, and Martin R. Broadley

., 2004 ; Garvin et al., 2006 ; Monasterio and Graham, 2000 ). Monasterio and Graham (2000) observed a strong linear relationship between year of release and grain yield and negative trends between grain Fe, Zn, and P concentrations and date of release

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Masahumi Johkan, Tomoko Chiba, Kazuhiko Mitsukuri, Satoshi Yamasaki, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kei-ichiro Mishiba, Toshinobu Morikawa, Masayuki Oda, Chihiro Yamamoto, and Hiroshi Ohkawa

and cultivated at 33.1/15.1 °C (maximum/minimum temperature) in the greenhouse. Anthers per 10 flowers were sampled on 24 Oct. and dried overnight. Pollen grains were incubated on 0.8% agar containing 3% sucrose and 0, 0.1, 1, or 10 mg·L −1 IAA at 25

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Daiichiro Miyajima

The seed producing system in viola (Viola ×cornuta) was investigated to improve seed yield and to save labor. In a flower five anthers sequentially dehisced; pollen grains were continuously supplied to the anterior petal, which played a significant role in pollination, throughout the flowering period. Evidence from pollen and ovule number suggests that the species is facultative autogamy. Each flower opened more than 10 days was independent of the success in fertilization and kept seed producing ability during the flower longevity period. Pollen grains also maintained viability during the flower longevity period. Pollinators were indispensable for pollination of viola, but pollination in viola was done by a different mechanism from the typical insect-mediated pollination that sticky pollen grains adhere to the exposed stigmas. Pollen grains, accumulated around the entrance of the stigmatic cavity, entered into the cavity by the movement of pollinators. Although the visitation of pollinators was occasional, solitary bees primarily contributed to the pollination of viola. On the other hand, germination of pollen grains on the stigmatic surface was under 50%. Seed set was much lower than the germination percentage of pollen grains. A viola flower had the ability for additional pollinations and fertilization for some days after the fertilization success in some ovules in the flower. This characteristic suggested that repeated pollination is effective to increase the number of mature seeds in a capsule.

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Hongli Wei, Chao Gao, Jie Qiu, Li Long, Biao Wang, Lu Yang, and Yang Hu

(magnitude, 10 × 10). Pollen with strong vitality appeared red or pink, and pollen with weak or no vitality was colorless or retained the original yellow color. For each slide, five visual fields containing no fewer than 50 scattered pollen grains were

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Heidi A. Kratsch, James A. Schrader, Kenneth G. McCabe, Gowrishankar Srinivasan, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

biocomposites and showed that addition of 10 wt% distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) substantially increased biodegradation compared with PHA without the filler. Schrader et al. (2013) showed that bioplastic plant containers made of a blended polymer

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Dafna Langgut

: botanical remains, art artifacts, and ancient texts. Botanical remains The botanical remains discussed in this study include seeds (as well as some other fruit remains such as rinds), wood, charcoals, and fossil pollen grains. While the first two types of

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Eric B. Brennan

another species that has been killed. To adjust the seeder to the appropriate seeding depth, it is helpful to use a light-colored test seed, such as grain amaranth, that is relatively easy to see in dark-colored soil. The seeder shoe tube can then be moved

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Junji Amano, Sachiko Kuwayama, Yoko Mizuta, Masaru Nakano, Toshinari Godo, and Hajime Okuno

well as JHS Color Chart number according to Kuwayama et al. (2005a) . Pollen fertility was evaluated by staining pollen grains with 1% (w/v) acetocarmine and described as the percentage of pollen grains with deeply stained cytoplasm ( Nakano and Mii

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Abe Shegro Gerrano, Patrick Olusanmi Adebola, Willem Sternberg Jansen van Rensburg, and Sonja Louise Venter

and grain legumes for human consumption ( Jansen van Rensburg et al., 2007 ). In arid and semiarid tropical regions of Africa, it is also been used as livestock feed and as a valuable component of the cropping systems ( Singh et al., 2002 ). Cowpea is