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Saquib Waheed, Yuan Peng, and Lihui Zeng

different light intensities, including high light (1100 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), weak light (400 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), and dark conditions. N. benthamiana transient transformation. For photoperiod treatment, N. benthamiana plants leaves were infiltrated with A

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Ai-Rong Li, Kai-Yun Guan, and Robin J. Probert

Pard; Shanghai, China) with a cycle of 16 h light (44.4 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 , 400–700 nm) at 25 °C and 8 h dark at 18 °C. This temperature and light regime was chosen based on the temperature and light found to produce optimal germination in other studies

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Ki-Ho Son and Myung-Min Oh

life cycle of plants are dependent on light, including seed germination, phototropism, gravitropism, chloroplast movement, shade avoidance, circadian rhythms, and flower induction ( Carvalho et al., 2011 ; Jiao et al., 2007 ). In the case of growing a

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Cynthia B. McKenney, Sandra A. Balch, Victor Hegemann, and Susan P. Metz

of 150 to 180 florets each contained in a light gray tomentose bract tinged with dark purple (green group 128D). ‘Raider Azure’ blooms from late spring to frost and retains a moderate herbal fragrance throughout the season. When flowers senesce

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Jing Zhou, PingPing Li, JiZhang Wang, and Weiguo Fu

Plant growth and development are affected by light, temperature, CO 2 concentration, humidity, and other environmental factors. Light is a crucial environmental factor for plant growth. Light energy is captured by plants through photosynthesis to

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Domenica Scuderi, Francesco Giuffrida, Stefania Toscano, and Daniela Romano

characteristics (e.g., a large surface area and dark green color of the leaves) and acclimatization to low light environments, such shading conditions limit the daily production of matter ( Cannell et al., 1987 ), and thus the production period is extended

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Qinglu Ying, Yun Kong, and Youbin Zheng

., 2017 ). Moreover, microgreens have a short growth period (7–20 d), so they can be grown with many cropping cycles in greenhouses throughout the winter. The low natural light level during winter months is one of the most limiting factors for greenhouse

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Jinpeng Xing, Yan Xu, Jiang Tian, Thomas Gianfagna, and Bingru Huang

were transplanted into containers filled with soil and were kept in a greenhouse with a mean day/night temperature of 24/18 °C, with a 12/12-h light/dark photoperiod, and light intensity ranging from 500 to 1000 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 . Plasmid

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Jacques R. Fouché, Stephanie C. Roberts, Stephanie J.E. Midgley, and Willem J. Steyn

color was negatively correlated with percentage light transmission into the canopy. High temperature in combination with high light causes photo-oxidation and photodestruction of chlorophyll in apple peel, although the xanthophyll cycle (carotenoids) and

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Gary W. Stutte

composition, provide high light output with low radiant heat, flexibility in design and placement, and exceptionally long life cycles between failures ( Morrow, 2008 ). LEDs are becoming available in an increasing number of wavelengths ( Bourget, 2008