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Erik Lichtenberg, John Majsztrik, and Monica Saavoss

wireless sensor system. Thus, instead of comparing experimental and control plants in the same greenhouse, production in the experimental greenhouse was compared with the operation’s typical production practices, outcomes, and costs for this gardenia

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Robert C. Morrow

., 1995 ). Because of the high cost of LED lighting systems, application of LEDs to crop growth has been restricted primarily to research in controlled environments like growth chambers and greenhouses. Much of the early work looking at plant production

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Marc-André Sparke, Achim Wegscheider, Patrick Winterhagen, Ute Ruttensperger, Martin Hegele, and Jens Norbert Wünsche

as PGR applications ( Adler and Wilcox, 1987 ; Biddington and Dearman, 1987 ; Latimer, 1991 ). Beyl and Mitchell (1977) invented an automated system that shakes and touches plants simultaneously to control plant growth, but their device was

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S. Alan Walters and Bryan G. Young

). Chemical weed control is essential to obtain the highest possible pumpkin yields in NT production systems, and tank mixtures of various herbicides are generally necessary to maximize weed control ( Brown and Masiunas, 2002 ; Kammler et al., 2008

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Madeline Wimmer, Beth Ann Workmaster, and Amaya Atucha

’, which was the only cultivar to show differences in yield among all training systems during both years of the study. Dormant cane pruning weight may not be a fully accurate indicator of vine growth, as distal vegetative growth was controlled by hedging

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Marie Abbey, Neil O. Anderson, Chengyan Yue, Michele Schermann, Nicholas Phelps, Paul Venturelli, and Zata Vickers

(ammonia, urea) converted by nitrifying bacteria in a biofilter into a form of N (nitrate N) that can be taken up by plant roots ( Diver and Rinehart, 2006 ). Aquaponics was developed as a means to control wastewater from recirculating aquaculture systems

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W. Carroll Johnson III, David B. Langston Jr., Daniel D. MacLean, F. Hunt Sanders Jr., Reid L. Torrance, and Jerry W. Davis

, relying solely on handweeding is often not feasible because of difficulties in hiring and managing labor to handweed. Any effective weed control system that reduces or eliminates the need for handweeding will provide a significant benefit to the organic

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Robert H. Stamps, Seenivasan Natarajan, Lawrence R. Parsons, and Jianjun Chen

groundwater, used for this purpose. In fact, in one of the approved water conservation plans for ferneries/nurseries, Florida's St. Johns River Water Management District has mandated a maximum water application rate using over-the-crop sprinkler systems for

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David Kohanbash, George Kantor, Todd Martin, and Lauren Crawford

Wireless sensor networks ( Fig. 1 ) are an important tool for monitoring crops and controlling irrigation ( Angelopoulos et al., 2011 ; Bauerle et al., 2013 ; Coates et al., 2012 ; Lea-Cox, 2012 ). A common issue with today’s WSN systems is being

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Jeffrey R. Pieper, Rebecca Nelson Brown, and José A. Amador

yields compared with the control treatment. Yield reductions are probably due to competition with weeds and the living mulch, and possibly due to reduced soil nitrate or changes in soil temperature and moisture. Most strip tillage production systems rely