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Amy Fulcher, Dava Hayden, and Winston Dunwell

The objectives of Kentucky's Sustainable Nursery Production Practices Extension Program are for 1) the Kentucky nursery industry to continue sustained growth and 2) Kentucky growers to produce high quality plants, efficiently use pesticides, be stewards of their land and Kentucky's environment. Sustainable Nursery Program Components are 1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Nursery Scouting, Scout Training and Scouting Education for growers, Extension workers, and students; 2) Best Management Practice (BMP) Workshops: BMP VI: Disease Demolition Workshop; 3) Production Practice Demonstration: Pruning Training, Pesticide Handling, and Safety and Environmental Stewartship. 4.) Research: Pruning protocols; Media and media amendments; Precision Fertilization and Irrigation. The Kentucky Nursery Crops Scouting Program scouting guidelines were developed and contained: a weekly scouting/trapping guide; a listing of which pests to look for and on what host plants, and a detailed methodology of precisely how to look for the pest, its damage, and how to record this information such that comparisons could be made across nurseries and seasons.

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Robin G. Brumfield and Margaret F. Brennan

The authors wish to acknowledge the Northeast Farm Management Committee for their participation in bringing together the resources to construct the comprehensive set of production budget information for this project. We also wish to

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Thomas H. Yeager

The nursery industry in Broward County, Fla., had to choose between partaking in the resolution needed to achieve 10 ppb total phosphorus discharged to the Everglades or face regulation. The industry decided to pursue the proactive route and implement best management practices (BMPs). Teams of industry personnel were formed to develop the content of the Florida Container Nursery BMP Guide that contained the following chapters: 1) nursery layout, 2) container substrate and planting practices, 3) fertilization management, 4) container substrate nutrient monitoring, 5) irrigation water quality, 6) irrigation application, 7) irrigation uniformity, 8) erosion control and runoff water management, 9) pesticide management, and 10) waste management. Each team was to determine the content of their chapter, based on cultural practices producers were currently using, or could be using, which would minimize or reduce surface water movement of phosphorus from the nursery to adjacent water. Cultural practices, brought forth after a consensus was achieved by each team in concert with governmental agencies, associations, and allied industries, were meshed with research information, or the “best” information available from academic sources to ensure that the resolutions or BMPs that were written would contribute to resolving the confl ict (i.e., elevated total phosphorus in canal waters). Consensus development is a new challenge for most academicians but it is important because unbiased and science-based knowledge is needed to assist in BMP development. Furthermore, consensus of those directly and indirectly involved in the nursery industry helps facilitate the use of BMPs. Once the Florida Container Nursery BMP Guide is adopted by rule under the statutory authority of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, nursery operators voluntarily using the BMPs and keeping appropriate records will receive a waiver of liability from cleanup costs associated with contaminated ground or surface water, and be presumed to be in compliance with state water quality standards.

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Steven A. Sargent

Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services adopted a series of best management practices, which includes the use of CRF ( Bartnick et al., 2005 ). Controlled-release fertilizers are SFs occluded in a polymer, resin, sulfur, or a polymer covering a sulfur

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Jiangfan Yu

Oil-tea plant (CamelliaoleiferaAbel), one of the four woody plants that produce edible oil for human consumption, is widely cultivated in Jiangxi Province (China) with production areas of 834,000 ha. Under conventional cultivation techniques, the oil yield of oil-tea plant was only 30 to 45 kg·ha-1, which significantly limited its economic impact and development. In the past 10 years, management practical techniques, such as preparing soil with organic fertilizer, weed control, thinning, pruning, alternated harvest time, improved harvest techniques, etc., had been implemented to replace traditional practices. Also, some new and promised clones were used to reforest and regenerate some areas with aged and degraded Camelliaoleiferaplantations. The results indicated that the new plantations and regenerated forests produced fruits for refining oil in their third year. The yield was significantly higher than that of the original stands in their fourth year and reached 712.5 kg·ha-1 in their sixth year. The highest yield, 750 kg·ha-1, was harvested at their eighth year after the new management practices. Oil-tea plant is not a low-yield and low-valued crop and the average yield could improve 6–7 times per hectare with selected clones and proper management. Both management practices and clone selection are key issues to the yield of oil-tea plant plantations. Best management techniques and better clones have been applied by the farmers today and the goal is to reforest or regenerate 80% of the production areas in Jiangxi Province. Future studies will focus on breeding better cultivars under these new management practices.

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Warren C. Stiles

Concerns about the impacts of agricultural practices on the environment dictate that all management techniques must be examined from the perspective of minimizing such impacts. Integrated pest management practices such as scouting, use of biological controls, improvement of pesticide application techniques, tree-row-volume spraying, and consideration of the environmental impact of alternative chemical controls offer opportunity for minimizing the adverse impact of pesticides. Improved spray equipment with canopy sensors and spray recovery systems improve deposition and reduce pesticide waste. Applying nutrients on the basis of need as indicated by leaf and soil analyses offers the best means of assuring optimal crop performance and minimizing the potential for contamination of surface and ground water supplies. Soil management practices must be evaluated for their potential to minimize soil erosion and competition, and for their potential contribution to pest management. Ground covers that are nonsupportive of nematodes, disease, or insect pest populations merit additional research. Methods for managing ground covers with low rates of growth regulators or herbicides to minimize invasion by problem weeds, reduce the need for mowing, and regulate competition, while retaining their beneficial attributes in minimizing soil erosion and maintaining soil structure, would be advantageous to orchardists and the environment.

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M.P. Garber, J. M. Ruter, J.T. Midcap, and K. Bondari

A 2001 survey of 102 nurseries that were members of the Georgia Green Industry Association was conducted to assess irrigation practices of container ornamental nurseries. Mean nursery size was 64 acres (26 ha) and mean annual revenue was about $3 million. About 50% of the irrigation water was from wells and the other 50% came from surface sources, such as collection basins. Irrigation in smaller containers, including #1, #3, and #5, was applied primarily by overhead methods, while larger containers (#7, #15, #25) made extensive use of direct application methods, such as drip or spray stakes. Frequency of irrigation in the summer growing months was about three times that of the winter season. Georgia nurseries use irrigation practices suggested in Southern Nursery Association best management practices, including collection of runoff water (48%), cyclic irrigation (44%), watering in the morning (92%), and grass strips between the production beds and drainage areas (60%).

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Christine Coker, Mike Ely, and Thomas Freeman

, respectively. The objectives of this research were to compare length and yield of eight yardlong bean varieties and collect observational data regarding production practices. Materials and methods Eight varieties of yardlong bean seeds (Evergreen Seeds, Anaheim

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Denny Schrock

Consumer horticulture surveys conducted 7 years apart examined the scope and trends in home horticulture in Olmsted County, MN. Master Gardener volunteers were trained to conduct the telephone surveys. Landscape horticulture was important in terms of numbers of people involved and reasons for gardening. Fewer people viewed vegetable gardening as important. Young people were less likely to garden than older ones. Lack of space was the biggest barrier to gardening.

It was concluded extension should expand newspaper and newsletter media efforts. Development of cooperative programs with garden centers and other agencies was suggested. Opportunities exist for training consumers in pesticide safety and best management practices for horticulture.

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Nicolas Tremblay and Carl Bélec

We want to thank the crop nutrition and management team at HRDC, synAgri, Yara, the staff at the L'Acadie experimental farm, Stéphanie Jacquet, the agronomists who specialized in horticulture at MAPAQ and Production clubs.