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Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle

9-h natural day achieved by using blackout cloth from 1700 to 0800 hr extended with day-extension lighting (≈2 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at canopy level) with incandescent lamps from 1700 to 2000 hr . From 0800 to 1700 hr , high-pressure sodium (HPS

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A. Maaike Wubs, Ep Heuvelink, Leo F.M. Marcelis, Gerhard H. Buck-Sorlin, and Jan Vos

geographical latitudes, supplemental lighting is often used from fall to spring to enhance plant growth and to obtain year-round high production and good quality. With the introduction of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source, growers can choose to

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph Masabni

, and energy), and increasing demand for locally produced fresh food with high quality ( Despommier, 2013 ; Kozai et al., 2015 ; Tornaghi, 2017 ). Because electricity for powering electrical lighting is one of the largest energy consumption components

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Cristina Pisani, Mark A. Ritenour, Ed Stover, Anne Plotto, Rocco Alessandro, David N. Kuhn, and Raymond J. Schnell

climatic environments isolated from each other geographically ( Kopp, 1966 ; Litz et al., 2005 ; Scora et al., 2002 ). Persea americana var. drymifolia race Mexican evolved in the highlands of south-central Mexico and is adapted to tropical highlands

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

cm × 16 cm) covered with a mesh screen top to ensure sufficient air ventilation under laboratory conditions (22 °C temperature and 98% relative humidity and room lighting, 375 lx for 10 h). After initial hydration (seeds were first soaked in room

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Rui Wang, Yuqing Gui, Tiejun Zhao, Masahisa Ishii, Masatake Eguchi, Hui Xu, Tianlai Li, and Yasunaga Iwasaki

conditions, plants showed a strong demand for carbohydrates, and the source-limiting was obvious ( Christiaens et al., 2016 ). In supplemental lighting treatment, variations of light environment have an effect on bud abscission ( Fudano et al., 2009 ). Tomato

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Katherine Kreuser, William C. Kreuser, Gautam Sarath, and Keenan L. Amundsen

( Hilhorst, 1990 ; Wenger, 1943 ). Industry professionals typically soak harvested burs in a 0.05 m KNO 3 solution followed by a moist chill treatment at 5 °C for 5 weeks, a treatment adapted from Wenger (1941) (R. Fritz, personal communication). The

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Dario Mantovani, Adolfo Rosati, and Domenico Perrone

crop production. This wild asparagus has the ability to adapt to shade and to avoid it, being an evergreen species with positive photosynthesis at low temperature, thus photosynthesizing in winter when deciduous trees allow good lighting of the

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Joyous Suiyigheh Tata and Hans Christian Wien

in the opposite direction. The petal detachment force technique was adapted from a method described by Moebius-Clune et al. (2008) for intact soil core penetration resistance measurement in the laboratory. This device (1000 kg arbor press, SKU 3552

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Fan Li, Guoxian Wang, Rongpei Yu, Min Wu, Qinli Shan, Lifang Wu, Jiwei Ruan, and Chunmei Yang

of Gypsophila paniculata , specific techniques such as artificial lighting and heating are used to provide optimal light and temperature conditions. Although the light can be replaced by an LED source, artificial heating is energy-consuming during