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Shih-Wei Kong, Hsin-Ying Chung, Ming-Yi Chang, and Wei Fang

low absorptivity coefficient in the absorption spectra of purified chlorophylls ( Sun et al., 1998 ). Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow production of light that emit only the wavelengths of light corresponding to the absorption peaks of plant

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Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

photosynthesis and growth of greenhouse vegetable crops may improve the profitability of greenhouse vegetable production. LED lights are becoming increasingly popular in horticultural applications for a variety of reasons, including their relatively high efficacy

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Jasmine J. Mah, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

, the fluorescent treatment plot was 1.5 °C higher than the average temperature of the LED treatment plots, but when the lights were off, all treatment plots had homogeneous temperatures. Average RH was 75% ± 7% in Expt. 1 and 69% ± 7% in Expt. 2. Light

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Chase Jones-Baumgardt, David Llewellyn, Qinglu Ying, and Youbin Zheng

) in greenhouses ( Ouzounis et al., 2015 ; Singh et al., 2015 ). Horticultural LEDs have become viable replacements for these older technologies because of their potential for high energy efficiency and durability, long lifetime, and low radiant heat

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Liu XiaoYing, Guo ShiRong, Xu ZhiGang, Jiao XueLei, and Takafumi Tezuka

fluorescent lamps and LEDs. LEDs are becoming especially popular for the cultivation of vegetable crops ( Amaki and Hirai, 2008 ; Goins et al., 1997 ; Hoenecke et al., 1992 ; Kim et al., 2004a , 2004b ; Schuerger et al., 1997 ; Tennessen et al., 1994

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Yun Kong, Devdutt Kamath, and Youbin Zheng

, including outdoor, greenhouse, and indoor environments ( Kyriacou et al., 2016 ). LED lighting has been increasingly used as a sole light source for indoor production of vegetables such as microgreens ( Kozai et al., 2015 ). Most microgreens are harvested at

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Aisu Gu, Wenfang Liu, Chao Ma, Jin Cui, Richard J. Henny, and Jianjun Chen

). LEDs have many advantages over conventional fluorescent lamps, including specific wavelength, low thermal output, adjustable light intensity and quality, high photoelectric conversion efficiency as well as small size and extended longevity ( Brown et al

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, Mario G. Ferruzzi, and Cary A. Mitchell

; Rizzini et al., 2011 ). To test hypotheses about effects of specific wavelengths on plant primary and secondary metabolism, photobiologists have leveraged LEDs for more than 20 years to tease apart complex, light-driven processes ( Barta et al., 1992

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Michael S. Reid and George L. Staby

de Geijn (1978) that the silver thiosulfate (STS) complex was stable and highly mobile in the vascular system but was still very effective in preventing ethylene action. This finding was quickly exploited in commercial horticulture and led to the

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

., 2013 ; Jiao et al., 2007 ). Changes in light quality, intensity, and duration cause responses at anatomical, physiological, and biochemical levels and, thus, influence plant morphology and functioning ( Haliapas et al., 2008 ). The development of LED