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John A. McCallum, Meeghan Pither-Joyce, and Martin Shaw

This research was funded by the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. We thank Ruth Butler for statistical assistance, Lyall Simmons for HPLC analysis, and Jane Lancaster (AgriFood Solutions) for critical reading of this

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V.I. Shattuck, Y. Kakuda, B.J. Shelp, and N. Kakuda

Abbreviations: GS, glucosinolate; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography. 1 Dept. of Horticultural Science. 2 Dept. of Food Science. We gratefully acknowledge E.W. Underhill for performing the LC plasma spray mass spectrometry analysis and

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Dean A. Kopsell

Econofilter PTFE 25/20; Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE) using a 5-mL syringe (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ) before HPLC analysis. Carotenoid and chlorophyll HPLC analysis. An HPLC unit with a photodiode array detector (1200 series

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Joseph K. Peterson, Howard F. Harrison, and Maurice E. Snook

After removal of the periderm, cortex tissue of the sweetpotato cultivar Regal was collected. Polar extracts of this tissue strongly inhibited germination of proso-millet seed. C18 preparative, step-gradient chromatography (H2O → 100% methanol) gave some 50+ fractions, all of which were assayed for inhibitory properties. Analytical HPLC, using diode array detection and signal processing, showed the presence of chlorogenic, p-coumaric and caffeic acid, scopolin and some unknown phenolic acids. Most fractions were inhibitory to some degree; however, the least polar ones (in 90% and 100% methanol), containing unknown compounds, were most inhibitory. Semi-prep HPLC of these fractions produced eight major peaks (λmax at 210–213 nm, λ2 at 281–284 nm). In our bioassays, the compounds produced 50% inhibition of proso-millet seed germination at ≈60 ppm. It is likely that these compounds contribute significantly to the allelopathic properties of sweetpotato.

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Yuko Yoshizawa, Kenji Sakurai, Satoru Kawaii, Masayoshi Asari, Junichi Soejima, and Noboru Murofushi

Aqueous ethanol extracts prepared from 19 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars were studied to explore their antiproliferative activity. Half of them showed strong inhibition on proliferation of human leukemic HL-60 cells, while the others were weak. Total polyphenols, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanins were measured and the results indicated that the antiproliferative activity was more strongly correlated to the polyphenols and radical scavenging activity than to the anthocyanin content. Several polyphenols in `Jonathan' were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Among those compounds found during HPLC, catechin and epicatechin seemed partially responsible for HL-60 antiproliferation. A careful examination on parentage of the apple cultivars tested revealed that `Jonathan' and its progeny showed high antiproliferation toward HL-60. This is the first observation about the relationship between antiproliferative activity and parentage of apples, and the information would be useful to create new apple cultivars that posses more anticancer potential.

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M.E. Garcia, C.R. Rom, J.B. Murphy, and G.W. Felton

The leaf phenolic content of 25 Malus species obtained from the National Germplasm Repository was evaluated. Two methods were utilized for determination of phenolic quantity and form. Total dihydroxy phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method using diphenlboric acid 2 aminoethyl ester as the reagent. These phenolics were quantified by using HPLC. Differences in phenolic quantity and type among the species were observed. This variation will be discussed in relation to apple–insect interactions.

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Lailiang Cheng and Fengwang Ma

Lisong Chen, Chris Watkins, and Sunita Kochhar for helpful discussions on antioxidant measurements and Rich Raba for technical assistance with HPLC.

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Jan E. Paul Debaene and Laren Robison

Tepary beans (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) are considered drought and heat tolerant, desirable characteristics for arid regions. Knowing the genetic distances among tepary lines can indicate both compatibility for intraspecific crosses and potential for Interspecific P. acutifolius × P. vulgaris hybrids. Fifteen tepary lines, including cultivars and landraces, were compared to two pinto bean varieties using random amplified polymorphic DNA's (RAPDs). At the present time polymorphisms have been clearly identified between wild and cultivated teparies and the pinto bean. An ammo acid profile is also being determined using HPLC. More work needs to be completed before relationships among cultivated teparies can be established.

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C.B. Ely, R.E. Frans, T.L. Lavy, R.E. Talbert, and J.D. Mattice

Two-year-old highbush blueberry bushes (Vaccinium corymbosum L. `Collins') were treated in Mar. 1985 with diuron or simazine at 2.2 or 4.5 kg a.i./ha. No residues were detected by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection (HPLC-UV) from treated berries that were harvested in June. Methiocarb was applied in May 1986 at 0.84 and 3 kg·ha-1 over the top of 3-year-old `Collins' when the berries began to ripen. Reverse-phase HPLC-UV of berries treated with methiocarb at 3 kg·ha-1 had combined residues of methiocarb and its sulfone and sulfoxide metabolites of 13.1 ppm from unrinsed and 7 ppm from rinsed berries harvested on the day of treatment; 4.9 ppm from unrinsed and 4 ppm from rinsed berries harvested 4 days after treatment; and 2.4 ppm from unrinsed and 2.5 ppm from rinsed berries harvested 8 days after treatment. Unrinsed berries treated with methiocarb at 0.84 kg·ha-1 had 5.7 ppm residue on the day of treatment and 1 ppm 8 days later. Residues from berries treated with methiocarb at 0.84 or 3 kg·ha-1 were below the legal tolerance level of 5 ppm after the required 7-day waiting period. Chemical names used: n'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,N -dimethylurea (diuron); 6-chloro- N,N' -diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine); 3,5-dimethyl-4-(methylthio)phenol methylcarbamate (methiocarb).

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Vicky W. Lee, H.P. Vasantha Rupasinghe*, and Chung-Ja Jackson

Apples are excellent sources of dietary phenolics, in particular flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, which are potent antioxidants that may play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. This study investigated the major phenolics profiles of apple fruit in relation to (1) the distribution among 8 Ontario-grown cultivars, (2) the different fruit parts, and (3) the effect of processing of fresh-cuts. In addition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenols content (TPC) were measured in apples by spectrophotometric assays. Flavonoids and chlorogenic acid were quantified using HPLC/PDA. Vitamin C was quantified using HPLC/Fluorescence. TAC, TPC and flavonoids levels were the highest in Honey Crisp and Delicious, moderate in Idared, Spartan, Granny Smith, and Cortland, and the lowest in Crispin and Empire. Apple peel contained 2 to 10-fold higher TAC, TPC and total of 10 major phenolics than that of core and flesh indicating peeling of apples during processing could reduced significantly the nutritional quality of fresh-cut apples. Dihydrochalcone (phloridzin) and chlorogenic acid levels were 2 to 21-fold higher in apple core than skin and flesh. TAC levels and vitamin C contents could be increased up to 3-fold and 14 to 20-fold, respectively by the post-cut dipping treatment with an ascorbic acid-based antioxidant formula. The phenolic profiles of sliced apples were stable up to 21 days at 4°C.