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Rod Jones and John Faragher

Five members of the Proteaceae and 13 Australian native cut flower cultivars were stored for 35 days under standard conditions at 1C to assess their ability to withstand long-term storage and transport. Protea cynaroides L., Leucadendron `Silvan Red', Leucospermum `Firewheel', Thryptomene calycina (Lindl.) Stapf., Telopea speciosissima R. Br., and Verticordia grandtiflora Endl. retained a vase life of at least 7 days after 21 days of storage. Leucospermum cordifolium Salisb. ex Knight, Protea neriifoli R. Br., Chamelaucium uncinatum `Alba', C. uncinatum `Purple Pride', Verticordia monadelpha Turcz., Verticordia plumosa (Desf.) Druce, and Verticordia nitens (Lindl.) Schau. suffered a decline in vase life ranging from 31% to 100% after 14 to 21 days of storage. Species of Verticordia and Chamelaucium were particularly susceptible to fungal infection. Anigozanthos pulcherrimus Hook. and the Anigozanthos cultivars Ruby Delight, Bush Harmony, Bush Haze, and Gold Fever all showed a significant reduction in vase life after 14 days of storage compared with unstored controls.

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Susan S. Han

The effects of the duration of cold storage, as well as the concentration, timing, and means of application of a solution containing 25 mg·L-1 each of benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins (GA4+7) on the postharvest quality of cut Asiatic and Oriental lilies (Lilium sp.) were evaluated. Depending on the cultivar, lower leaves began to turn yellow between 1 and 2 weeks after placing non-cold-stored stems in a 20 °C room illuminated 12 h·d-1 with 8 μmol·m-2·s-1 from cool-white fluorescent lamps. Leaf yellowing continued to progress upward until the end of the vase life. Cold storage (3.3 °C) worsened the leaf disorder, particularly, on the Oriental lily `Stargazer'. The longer the duration of cold storage, the earlier the development of leaf yellowing and the higher the percentage of leaves that were chlorotic. In addition, cold storage induced bud blasting, inhibited flowers from fully opening, and reduced the longevity and fresh weight of open flowers and the vase life of cut stems. Spraying leaves with a solution containing 25 mg·L-1 each of BA and GA4+7 significantly reduced cold-storage-induced leaf yellowing, bud blasting, and vase life of three of the four cultivars tested. The development of leaf yellowing declined with increasing concentration of BA+GA4+7. The susceptibility of `Stargazer' to cold-storage-induced leaf yellowing and bud blasting can be counteracted by a concentration of growth regulators higher than that which was effective for the other cultivars. Timing of the BA+GA4+7 application was not critical, as there were no differences in leaf yellowing or bud development when the solution was sprayed before or after the cold storage. Addition of BA+GA4+7 (0.5 or 2.5 mg·L-1 of each) to the preservative solution or a pulsed treatment in solutions containing 25 mg·L-1 each of BA and GA4+7 for 4 hours prevented leaf yellowing, but increased bud blasting. For practical applications, growth regulators can be sprayed prior to or after cold storage in order to improve the postharvest leaf and flower quality of cut lilies.

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Teeranuch Jaroenkit and Robert E. Paull

Heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and bird-of-paradise (Strelitzia reginae) inflorescences have similar stem structures and postharvest handling regimes. Inflorescences, especially heliconia, should be harvested in the morning while still turgid, and at the most suitable stage of development which varies with the species, its proposed use, and market requirements. Treatments that extend postharvest vase life, either or both enhance water uptake or prevent water loss and provide an exogenous energy source. Use of the most suitable temperature for shipping and storage prolongs vase life. Heliconia should be shipped and stored at >10 °C (50.0 °F), red ginger >12 °C (53.6 °F), and bird-of-paradise at >8 °C (46.4 °F). Sucrose (10% w/v), citric acid [150 mg·L-1 (ppm)] and 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (250 mg·L-1) are major chemicals used in pulsing and holding solution for bird-of-paradise. Holding solutions for red ginger are similar except 2% (w/v) sucrose is recommended. The response of heliconia inflorescences to different pulsing and holding solutions has been shown to be negligible. A 200-mg·L-1 benzyladenine spray extends the vase life of red ginger and heliconia. Hot water treatment of red ginger at 49 °C (120.2 °F) and 50 °C (122.0 °F) for 12 to 15 min extends postharvest vase life, kills most of the pests that infest red ginger, and reduces the geotropic response. The major postharvest problems are saprophytic mold on bird-of-paradise, negative geotropic response of red ginger, and insect infestation of all three flowers. There is no reported method to control the postharvest nectar and slime production on bird-of-paradise that provides a substrate for saprophytic mold growth. Dipping inflorescences in benomyl or thiobendazole (TBZ) at 200 mg·L-1 does help control postharvest mold growth in bird-of-paradise and heliconia. Compared to most temperate flowers, there is a need for greater understanding of morphological and physiological factors that limit the vase life of heliconia, red ginger and bird-of-paradise flowers.

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Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole

last for more than 1 month in a vase ( Clark et al., 2010 ). Growers are hesitant to produce new crops without information on postharvest techniques that maximize postharvest quality. A number of factors influence vase life after harvest, including

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Junhai Niu, Qingyun Leng, Guiyu Li, Shaohua Huang, Shisong Xu, and Xinge Lin

-like inflorescence (spadix), which are carried on a long, slender peduncle. Cut anthuriums are also known for their especially long vase life, depending on the variety, season, and cultivation conditions ( Elibox and Umaharan, 2010 ; Farrell et al., 2012 ; Paull et

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John M. Dole, Zenaida Viloria, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William Fonteno

regarding the use of tap or deionized (DI) water ( Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990 ; Sacalis, 1993 ). In some studies, tap water produced the shortest vase life ( Kamataka, 2003 ), but in others, it resulted in a longer vase life than DI water ( van Meeteren et al

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Fisun G. Çelikel and Michael S. Reid

The respiration of flowers of stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.] had a Q10 of 6.9 between 0 and 10 °C. Simulated transport for 5 days resulted in marked reduction in the vase life of flowers transported at 10 °C and above. Flower opening, water uptake, and vase life of the flowers increased somewhat in a vase solution containing 50 ppm NaOCl, and considerably in a commercial preservative containing glucose and a bactericide. Exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in rapid desiccation and abscission of the petals, effects that were prevented by pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Even in the absence of exogenous ethylene, the life of the flowers was significantly increased by inhibiting ethylene action using pretreatment with silver thiosulfate (STS) or 1-MCP. STS was more effective than 1-MCP in maintaining flower quality.

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Niels B. Bredmose

The cut rose, grown as a single-stemmed crop, resembles a potted plant and can be adapted to transportable bench systems. Potentially, this cultivation method could increase control of rose development, flexibility of production and produce, and automation of difficult or laborious cultural operations. Synchronous growth and flowering is considered important. The effects of increased quantum irradiation integral and plant density on shoot growth, fresh biomass production, and bloom quality were studied as single-stemmed rose plants (Rosa hybrida L.) `Kordapa' Lambada, `Tanettahn' Manhattan Blue, `Tanorelav' Red Velvet, and `Sweet Promise' Sonia grown under 20 hours photoperiods at 23 °C average air temperature. Plants were grown in rockwool cubes on ebb and flood benches irrigated with a complete nutrient solution, and were supplied with carbon dioxide at 1000 μmol·mol-1. Increased the daily quantum integral from 17.8 to 21.0 mol·m-2·d-1 increased fresh biomass efficiency, stem diameter, and specific fresh mass while number of nodes, number of five-leaflet-leaves, plastochron value, and stem length at anthesis decreased. Fresh mass at anthesis was not affected by the treatments. Increasing plant population density from 100 to 178 plants/m2 increased stem length at visible flower bud, and reduced both fresh biomass efficiency and specific fresh mass. These effects are suggested to be related to assimilate supply and translocation, and light perception of the roses. High quantum integral slightly reduced flower diameter but in general, quantum integral or plant density did not affect bloom quality or vase life. Use of preservative floral solution generally improved rose flower diameter and vase life. In Lambada increased light quantum integral prolonged vase life, but use of preservative solution did not. The cultivars Sonia and Red Velvet required 19 to 20 days from cutting/planting until onset of bud growth, 29 to 34 days until visible flower bud, and 39 to 49 days until anthesis. Red Velvet roses were ≈60 cm long at anthesis, and had larger stem diameter and growth rate, accumulated more fresh biomass, were most efficient producing fresh biomass, and had higher specific fresh mass among the cultivars. Light quantum integral is suggested to be used as a means to synchronize single-stemmed rose plant development.

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Reza Saeedi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Amir H. Khoshgoftarmanesh, and Mohammad R. Sabzalian

-Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer 3030 Inc., Waltham, MA) was finally used to measure the calcium content of the flowering stems and their leaves ( Volpin and Elad, 1991 ). Vase life and relative fresh weight. To perform postharvest

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A.M. Armitage, N.G. Seager, I.J. Warrington, D.H. Greer, and J. Reyngoud

Incremental increases in temperature from 14 to 22 to 30C resulted in linear increases in stem length and node number and decreases in stem diameter and stem strength of Oxypetalum caeruleum (D. Don.) Decne. Higher temperatures also resulted in additional flower abortion, reduced time to flowering, and fewer flowering stems per inflorescence. Reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from 695 to 315 μmol·s-1·m-2 had similar effects as increasing the temperature on vegetative characteristics, but had little effect on reproductive ones. The rate of stem elongation was greatest at low PPF for all temperatures and at high temperature for all PPF treatments. Net photosynthesis rose between 14 and 22C and declined at 30C for all PPF treatments. Long photoperiods (12 or 14 hours) resulted in longer internodes, longer stems, and more flowers per cyme than short photoperiods (8 or 10 hours), but photoperiod had little effect on flowering time. Treatments to reduce latex coagulant and silver thiosulfate treatments had no significant effect on vase life.