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Llngxiao Zhang

The effect of water stress on photosynthesis was investigated in strawberry plants to see responses of different aged-leaves within the same plant. Preliminary results indicated that, under severe stress (SS) conditions, young leaves had lower water potentials and higher photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rates than old leaves had, due to higher stomatal conductance in young leaves. This situation was not found in moderately stressed or well–watered plants, probably because of the higher non-stomatal limitation in old leaves under SS condition. Under SS condition, old leaves had a higher intracellular CO2 concentration. Osmotic adjustment or acclimation might occur during slow drying process, so that the young leaves could adjust their stomata and still remain open under low water potentials.

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Masaki Yahata, Hisato Kunitake, Tsutomu Yabuya, Kensuke Yamashita, Yukiko Kashihara, and Haruki Komatsu

To produce the homozygous strain of a haploid plant derived from small seed-derived seedlings of `Banpeiyu' pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck), we carried out colchicine treatment to axillary shoot buds of the haploid. Many shoots with cytochimeras (X+2X and 2X+4X) arose from the colchicine-treated axillary buds. When cytochimeric buds of 2X+4X were top-grafted onto trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], a complete diploid shoot with 18 chromosomes was obtained from the cytochimera. This diploid strain showed vigorous growth compared with the original haploid. The leaf weight per unit area and the stomata size in this diploid were significantly larger than those of the original haploid plant, and were almost equal to those of `Banpeiyu' pummelo. The diploid strain was confirmed to be a doubled haploid of a haploid from `Banpeiyu' pummelo, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and chromosome composition analysis by chromomycin A3 (CMA) staining.

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Hye Jin Kwon, Song Kwon, and Ki Sun Kim

Five distinctive developmental stages were chronologically suggested. Cells at Stage I and II were essentially free of cytoplasmic or vacuolar abnormalities and the cytoplasm contained numerous electron-dense mitochondria with well-developed cristae. At Stage III, there were a localized dilation of mitochondria matrix and a partial-diluted cytoplasm in mesophyll cells. At Stage IV, characterized by high levels of fresh weight and osmolality, most mesophyll cells were seen to be ruptured, resulting in a general mixing of cell contents and diluting cytoplasm. It can be explained as an irreversible senescence phenomena that tonoplast in mesophyll cell was ruptured partly, corresponding to rapid increase in petal cell size and turgidity. Petal turgidity was due to an increase of content in soluble sugar. At Stage V, there was a loss of petal fresh weight. With a loss of turgidity, most mesophyll cells have collapsed completely. There were a notable plasmolysis in vasculature. The activity of protease in petals was found to increase between Stage II and III, and then decreased rapidly at Stage IV, resulting in the decrease of total protein content before senescence. Unexpectedly, there were stomata in hibiscus petals. Ultrastructural disorganization, like as a broken tonoplast, was observed in mesophyll cells at Stage IV. ABA and the stomata on petal might promote the disorganization. The final stages of senescence involved breakdown of cellular organization leading to hydrolysis of previously separated compartments. The cellular disorganization triggered during the flowers are still in the process of opening may be one of the earliest physiological signal that senescence is under way.

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Anton Baudoin, Sarah Finger McDonald, and Tony K. Wolf

Phytotoxicity of horticultural oil, applied shortly before antifungal sulfur, was evaluated for 23 grape cultivars. Oil application significantly reduced accumulation of soluble solids in berries of 9 of 23 cultivars, but there was no relationship with visible foliar injury. Treatment of leaves of Vitis labrusca `Catawba' with 1.5% JMS Stylet-Oil reduced leaf net photosynthesis (Pn) by 50% to 60% and of Vitis vinifera `Chardonnay' by 20% to 30% 1 day after application. Pn was reduced only when the lower (abaxial) leaf surface was treated; treatment of only the adaxial leaf surface had little effect. The Pn depression in `Catawba' persisted 3 to 4 weeks, whereas reductions in `Chardonnay' persisted less than 2 weeks. The Pn-depressing effect of oil was not significantly ameliorated by real or simulated rainfall, and washing the lower leaf surfaces with water and detergent also had only limited effect. There was no significant difference in Pn depression from oil applications made in the middle of the day (stomata open) compared to application in the evening (stomata closed), or from oil applied at higher versus lower application pressure. The greater sensitivity of `Catawba' than `Chardonnay' to Pn depression by oil may be related to the amount of oil retained by the leaves; the pubescent lower leaf surfaces of `Catawba' retained more than twice as much spray emulsion as did the more glabrous leaves of `Chardonnay'. Visible injury was mild in both cultivars, with small water-soaked lesions developing more commonly on `Chardonnay' than on `Catawba' leaves. Spray oil retention data for additional cultivars suggested that differences in retention can explain a portion of the differences in horticultural oil phytotoxicity.

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Montree Issarakraisila and Ravie Sethpakdee

Leaf anatomy of young rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.), durian (Durio zibethinus Murray), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.), and longkong (Aglaia dookoo Griff.) potted plants grown under different light intensity (100%, 55%, 40%, or 25% of full sun) were observed. The thickness of both palisade and spongy parenchyma decreased as the light intensity decreased. This resulted in a decrease of lamina thickness when the light was lower. An exception occurred in mangosteen when the thickness of both palisade and spongy parenchyma in leaf grown under full sunlight were lower than in leaves grown under 55% or 40% full sun. The thickness ratio of palisade and spongy tissue in rambutan and durian decreased as light intensity decreased. While the ratios in mangosteen and longkong leaves grown under full sunlight were lower than the ratios of leaves grown under 55% or 40% of full sun. The frequency of stomata also decreased as the light intensity decreased. The thickness of palisade tissue of leaves grown under 55% of full sun in rambutan, durian, mangosteen, and longkong were 70, 110, 110, and 55 μm, respectively. The thickness of spongy tissue of leaves grown under 55% of full sun in rambutan, durian, mangosteen, and longkong were 60, 30, 410, and 145 μm, respectively. The thickness of leaves grown under 55% of full sun in rambutan, durian, mangosteen, and longkong were 186, 230, 565, and 233 μm, respectively. The number of stomata per square millimeter of leaves grown under 55% of full sun in rambutan, durian, mangosteen, and longkong were 437, 221, 133, and 301, respectively. Photosynthesis efficiency and light adaptation were discussed.

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Chris A. Martini, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Terril A. Nell

Abbreviations: A, leaf carbon assimilation; Ci, intercellular CO,; gs, stomata] conductance; LC, liter containers; TA, temperature at canopy height; TC, temperature at center location; TI, time of day; VO, container volume. Graduate research

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Hiphil S. Clemente and Thomas E. Marler

Field-grown `Red Lady' papaya (Carica papaya L.) plants were used to measure foliar gas-exchange responses to rapid changes in irradiance levels to determine if papaya stomata are able to track simulated sun-to-cloud cover transitions. Natural sunlight and neutral shade cloth placed over the leaf were used to provide high photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of about 2000 μmol·m-2·s-1 until leaves reached steady state within the cuvette, followed by three minutes with low PPF of about 325 μmol·m-2·s-1, and a return to PPF of about 2000 μmol·m-2·s-1. Net CO2 assimilation (A) declined from an initial 20 μmol·m-2·s-1 to about 9 μmol·m-2·s-1 within 20 seconds of initiating low PPF, and remained fairly stable for the duration of the three minutes of low PPF. Stomatal conductance (gs) declined within 60 seconds of initiating low PPF, from 385 to about 340 μmol·m-2·s-1 during the three minutes duration of low PPF. Following the return to high PPF, A rapidly increased to about 18 μmol·m-2·s-1, then gradually increased to the original value. After a lag of about 1 minute following the return to high PPF, gs began to increase and returned to the original value after three minutes. Container-grown `Tainung #1' papaya plants were used in a second study to determine the influence of mild drought stress on gas-exchange responses to rapid irradiance transitions. For drought-stressed plants, gs declined to a greater magnitude following the high-to-low PPF transition, and gs and A recovered more slowly following the transition from low-to-high PPF than for well-watered plants. Water use efficiency declined to a minimum immediately following the high-to-low PPF transition for both sets of plants, but recovered more rapidly for drought-stressed plants. These results indicate that papaya stomata are able to track rapid changes in irradiance, and mild drought stress enhances the tracking response.

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Carole H. Saravitz, Frank A. Blazich, and Henry V. Amerson

Cotyledons and hypocotyls of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.] were excised from seeds treated with H2 O2 for 9 days and placed on bud induction medium containing 10 mg BA/liter and 0.01 mg NAA/liter or medium without growth regulators. Although adventitious buds did not develop, cotyledons exposed to growth regulators responded differently than cotyledons placed on medium lacking growth regulators. Cotyledons and hypocotyls responded similarly to growth regulators during the initial phase in culture, but cell divisions ceased in cotyledons, thus preventing meristemoid and subsequent bud development. After 3 days on medium containing growth regulators cell divisions were localized in epidermal and subjacent layers of hypocotyls, whereas similar cell divisions were' not observed in hypocotyls placed on medium without growth regulators. Cell clusters consisting of two to five cells (promeristemoids) were present after 7 days on hypocotyls placed on bud induction medium. In hypocotyls placed on medium without growth regulators, stomata continued to develop and cells within the cortex became vacuolated during the first 2 weeks in culture. All explants were transferred to secondary medium after 3 weeks. Cell clusters continued to enlarge into meristemoids on hypocotyls initially placed on bud induction medium. Gradually, meristemoids developed into buds and cataphylls were observed covering bud meristems. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purine-6-amine (BA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Craig D. Green, Ann Stodola, and Robert M. Augé

Mycorrhizal colonization can alter stomatal behavior of host leaves during drought. This may be related to an altered production or reception of a chemical signal of soil drying. We tested whether intact root systems were required to observe a mycorrhizal effect on leaf transpiration (E), or whether some residual mycorrhizal influence on leaves could affect E of foliage detached from root systems. Transpiration assays were performed in the presence of several possible candidates for a chemical signal of soil drying. In detached leaves of Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), colonization interacted significantly with ABA and pH in regulating transpiration. Colonization affected E of detached Rosa hybrida (rose) leaves but had no effect on E of detached leaves of Pelargonium hortorum (geranium). In each species tested, increasing the ABA concentration decreased E. In cowpea, calcium appeared to alter stomatal sensitivity to ABA, as well as regulate stomatal activity directly. The pH of the feeding solution affected E in rose, but did not change E independently in cowpea or geranium. Adding phosphorus to the feeding solution did not alter E or the apparent sensitivity of stomata to ABA in any of the test species. Colonization of roots by mycorrhizal fungi can result in residual effects in detached leaves, that can alter the stomatal reception of chemical signals in both rose and cowpea.

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J.D. Chung, Y.K. Park, S.O. Jee, H.Y. Kim, and M.S. Cho

This experiment was conducted to identify the effect of various growth retardants on the growth of Aerides japonicum in vitro. Paclobutrazol was found the most effective retardant for reducing the leaf growth of seedling. Ancymidol and uniconazole also showed retarding effects on leaf growth of one, whereas Daminozide didn't. When growth retardants were added to culture medium, leaf length of seedlings was gradually shortened and leaf width became wider than that of control. However, root length was shorter and number of roots and root diameter were greatly increased. On the contrary, at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm uniconazole, growth of leaf and root were enhanced. It was showed that the possibility of using as an additive for good growth of Aerides japonicum seedling in vitro. The activity of GA-like substances was higher in the portion in which growth of seedlings were promoted. It was identified by anatomical observations that the number of stomata and thickness of cell layer in leaf were increased by treatment of retardants.