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Steven E. Newman, Michael J. Roll, and Ronald J. Harkrader

Quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) isolated from plants in the family Papaveraceae are effective for the control of some fungal diseases. Extracts from Macleaya cordata, a species rich in QBAs, were formulated at 150 mg·L–1 QBA for spray application to greenhouse roses (Rosa sp.) infected with Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae (powdery mildew). The QBA formulation was applied at 10-day intervals. For comparison, copper sulfate pentahydrate, piperalin, and fenarimol also were applied to mildewinfected plants within the same greenhouse at their respective labeled rates. One day after treatment, visible symptoms of mildew infection were reduced 60% by QBA, whereas fenarimol, copper sulfate pentahydrate, and piperalin reduced the symptoms of infection 50%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. Subsequent studies demonstrated that a tank mix of QBA and piperalin provided enhanced control of powdery mildew on rose. Results from this study indicate that QBAs have the potential to be developed as a biorational fungicide for greenhouse use with both fungicidal and fungistatic activity.

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Joe DeFrank* and James J.K. Leary

Two experiment were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to determine the response of orchid cultivars, grown as potted plants, to postemergence herbicides. In a film covered commercial nursery in Pahoa, four orchid cultivars were exposed to five sequential herbicide applications. The cultivars used were: Emma White (Dendrobium), Wildcat Blood Ruby, Volcano Queen (both Oncidiums), and SuFun Beauty (Vanda). The herbicides evaluated in this experiment were diuron and clopyralid applied at the anticipated (1×), 2×, and 4× use rate. Spray applications were made directly to crop foliage using a spray to wet application. The first application was applied on 11 Nov. 1999 with sequential applications made at 20-, 208-, 73-, and 69-day intervals for a total of five sprays. Orchid dry weight accumulation was not significantly reduced and all cultivars responded in a similar way. “Emma White” was the only cultivar to express abnormal growth to clopyralid in the form of J-shaped flower spikes and deformed flowers. The other three cultivars did not show any noticeable injury in response to any of the spray applications. A follow up experiment was conducted on the dry leeward coast of Oahu in a commercial saran house. Diuron was the only herbicide evaluated at one and four times the anticipated labeled use rate. The first application was made on 27 Apr. 2000 with sequential applications made at 50-, 21-, 70-, and 66-day intervals for a total of five sprays. The orchids selected for this experiment included nine Dendrobiums and one Vanda. Treatments were made directly to plant foliage using a spray to wet application. Whole plant dry weight accumulation of the 10 cultivars responded in a similar way and no herbicide treatment reduced dry weight accumulation in comparison to untreated plants.

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Martin P.N. Gent

The persistence of effects of paclobutrazol or uniconazol on stem elongation was determined for several years after large-leaf Rhododendron and Kalmia latifolia were treated with a single-spray application of these triazol growth-regulator chemicals. Potted plants were treated in the second year from propagation, and transplanted into the field in the following spring. The elongation of stems was measured in the year of application and in the following 2 to 4 years. Treatments with a wide range of doses were applied in 1991, 1992, or 1995. For all except the most-dilute applications, stem elongation was retarded in the year following application. At the highest doses, stem growth was inhibited 2 years following application. The results could be explained by a model of growth regulator action that assumed stem elongation was inversely related to amount of growth regulator applied. The dose response coefficient for paclobutrazol was less than that for uniconazol. The dose that inhibited stem elongation one-half as much as a saturating dose was about 0.5 and 0.05 mg/plant, for paclobutrazol and uniconazol, respectively. The dose response coefficient decreased exponentially with time after application, with an exponential time constant of about 2/year. The model predicted a dose of growth regulator that inhibited 0.9 of stem elongation immediately after application would continue to inhibit 0.5 of stem elongation in the following year.

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Brent L. Black, Martin J. Bukovac, and Jerome Hull Jr.

Post-bloom fruit thinning of spur-type `Delicious' with NAA may occasionally result in excessive small fruit (50 - 67 mm) not correlated with crop load. We evaluated the effect of carrier volume and time of application on incidence of small fruit over three growing seasons. A constant dose of NAA (30 g·ha-1) was applied in 230 to 2100 liter·ha-1 at about 10 mm king fruit diameter (KFD). Amount of NAA-induced small fruit differed from year to year, but there was no significant effect of carrier volume in any given year. NAA (15 mg·liter-1) was applied as a dilute spray at 5 to 22 mm KFD. Time of application influenced fruit size distribution at harvest in only one of three years. The incidence of small fruit appeared more closely related to temperature during spray application than to carrier volume or time of application. The effect of NAA on growth rate of king fruit with minimal competition (branches hand thinned, no lateral fruit) was determined over the first month after thinning. There was no pronounced effect of NAA on post-treatment growth rate. In a related study, NAA caused a significant decrease in fruit size when two or more fruit were competing on the same spur, while fruit size in the absence of intra-spur competition was not significantly reduced.

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George F. Antonious, Matthew E. Byers, John C. Snyder, and Douglas L. Dahlman

The development and deployment of crop varieties that resist or tolerate insect attack is one tactic of pest management that can eliminate one or more spray applications per season, a significant savings to the grower. Seven tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars (Marmand, Edkawy, VF-145, GS-27, Pakmore-B, Flordade, and UCX) were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for differences in mortality and feeding behavior (leaf-area ingested) of the 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). The most resistant cultivars to S. littoralis during two summer seasons, 1990 and 1991, were Edkawy and UCX (37% mortality) and VF-145 (33% mortality). Mortality was least (20%) on the F1 hybrid GS-27, indicating that GS-27 was the most favorable cultivar for S. littoralis. L. decemlineata larvae reared on excised tomato leaflets of the same varieties indicated similar trends. Factors responsible for greater resistance of Edkawy and UCX to S. littoralis and L. decemlineata are under investigation.

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T.J. Blom

Bract edge burn (BEB) has been observed in different greenhouse operations across North America over the past 10 years. The symptoms develop at anthesis or shortly after shipping. Varieties such as `Supjibi', `V-14 Glory', and `Celebrate 2' are considered susceptible cultivars. A number of trials using endosulfan (Thiodan) have been conducted. In 1993, `Supjibi' branched poinsettias were sprayed with either Thiodan, Decis, Thiodan + Decis, or water or remained unsprayed. The sprays were applied in week 39, 42 or 45. For each treatment period, plants were treated three times at 4-day intervals at label recommendations. At anthesis (week 47), plants sprayed with Thiodan or Thiodan + Decis during week 39 showed necrosis in the margin of the transitional bracts. In 1994, single spray applications in week 39, 40, 41, 42, or 45 of Thiodan, Ca (400 ppm), Thiodan + Ca in a tank mix, unsprayed, or Thiodan followed by four calcium sprays (weekly) in November. At week 48, all treatments except the latter showed necrosis, except this time it was marginal flecking in the transitional or primary bracts. In Spring 1995, single vs. multiple Thiodan applications were compared.

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Holly L. Scoggins* and Joyce G. Latimer

Increasing fertilizer levels may reduce production time but can lead to excessive growth of herbaceous perennials, requiring the application of plant growth regulators (PGRs). This study investigated the effects of ascending fertilizer rates in conjunction with two rates of uniconazole and a control. Rooted liners of Artemisia arborescens L. `Powis Castle', Artemisia vulgaris L. `Oriental Limelight, Astilbe chinensis (Maxim.) Franch. `Pumila', Filipendula rubra (Hill) Robinson `Venusta' and Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. were potted with controlled-release fertilizer (15N-3.9P-10K) incorporated at 2.4, 4.72, and 7.11 kg·m-3. A single foliar spray application of uniconazole was applied two weeks after transplanting at a volume of 210 mL·m-3 and two rates from 15 to 60 mg·L-1 plus a control (species-dependent). Plant height and width were measured at 2,4,6, and 8 weeks after treatment (WAT). No interactions between fertilizer rate and uniconazole were observed. Main effects varied by species. The application of uniconazole controlled height and width of Artemisia `Oriental Limelight' and Astilbe for the duration of the experiment. Height, width, and dry weight of Artemisia `Oriental Limelight' increased with ascending fertilizer rates while Astilbe was not affected. Growth of Filipendula and Artemisia `Powis Castle' was unresponsive to uniconazole, though dry weight was reduced for both at the lowest fertilizer rate. Uniconazole provided height control of Perovskia, but the effect did not persist beyond 6 WAT. Ascending fertilizer rates increased Perovskia dry weight but not height.

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Bruce W. Wood, Rufus Chaney, and Mark Crawford

The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency in certain horticultural crops merits development of fertilizer products suitable for specific niche uses and for correcting or preventing deficiency problems before marketability and yields are affected. The efficacy of satisfying plant nutritional needs for Ni using biomass of Ni hyperaccumulator species was assessed. Aqueous extraction of Alyssum murale (Waldst. & Kit.) biomass yielded a Ni-enriched extract that, upon spray application, corrects and prevents Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. The Ni-Alyssum biomass extract was as effective at correcting or preventing Ni deficiency as was a commercial Ni-sulfate salt. Foliar treatment of pecan with either source at ≥10 mg·L–1 Ni, regardless of source, prevented deficiency symptoms whereas treatment at less than 10 mg·L–1 Ni was only partially effective. Autumn application of Ni to foliage at 100 mg·L–1 Ni during leaf senescence resulted in enough remobilized Ni to prevent expression of morphologically based Ni deficiency symptoms the following spring. The study demonstrates that micronutrient deficiencies are potentially correctable using extracts of metal-accumulating plants.

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J. Jiao, X. Wang, and M.J. Tsujita

Uniconazole was applied as a drench or spray to six hybrid lily (Liliurn sp.) cultivars. Spray application was generally more effective than drench in reducing shoot elongation rate in the first few weeks, and then the efficacy decreased and was less effective than the drench at later stages of plant development. At flowering, a uniconazole drench at 0.1 mg/pot was ineffective for height reduction in `Bravo', `Juliana', and `Sunray' lilies. At higher rates, uniconazole drench was similar to spray in reducing shoot growth in `Bravo' and 306-1 but less effective than spray in `Juliana', `Star Gazer', and `Sunray' lilies. Uniconazole spray reduced plant height at flowering in all the lilies compared to control plants. Days to flower was not affected in `Bravo', `Juliana', and `Sunray' but was increased in `Star Gazer', 306-1, and 306-2 by uniconazole spray treatments. Flowering duration was decreased only in 306-1 by uniconazole spray at 0.2 mg/pot. Chemical name used: (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl) -4,4 -dimethyl-2-(l,2,4 -triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3 -ol (uniconazole).

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Vito S. Polito, Kirk D. Larson, and Katherine Pinney

Bronzing of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) fruit that is not the result of arthropod feeding or chemical spray application occurs frequently in California's central coast strawberry production region from late spring through midsummer, a period characterized by relatively high temperature, low relative humidity, and high solar irradiance. The cause of this phenomenon is not known, but in preliminary trials, intermittent, midday misting of plants and increased drip irrigation rate resulted in reduced incidence of fruit bronzing. To characterize the bronzing phenomenon and its development in strawberry fruit tissues, we conducted an anatomical and histochemical examination of bronzed fruit. Bronzed and nonbronzed fruit were sampled over a range of fruit maturities. Results show that bronzing derives from a lesion at the cortical surface early in the fruit's development. Epidermal cells become radially compressed and the cell contents coalesce into a densely staining mass. The cuticular layer becomes disrupted and discontinuous. As the fruit develops, densely staining materials, possibly phenolic precipitates, accumulate within subepidermal cells of bronzed fruit, subepidermal cell walls thicken, and intercellular spaces fill with pectic substances and other densely staining materials. Results are consistent with reports of sunscald injury from other fruit species, and raise the possibility that strawberry bronzing occurs in response to heat or solar radiation injury.