Vegetative budbreak and subsequent canopy development in some southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrid) cultivars are delayed and/or reduced as flower bud density increases. This delay/reduction in vegetative growth has been correlated with decreased weight and soluble solids of individual fruit. In the present study, the effects of flower bud density (FBD) on vegetative budbreak and canopy development, starch reserves, and whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rate (NCER) were assessed to determine how FBD affected the source supply for fruit development. A range of flower bud densities was established in two cultivars of containerized southern highbush blueberry during dormancy. Vegetative budbreak was delayed and vegetative budbreak, leaf area, and leaf area to fruit ratios decreased as FBD increased. In general, increasing FBD increased the rate of root and cane starch depletion during the first four weeks after bloom. Whole-canopy NCER was similar across the range of FBD during early fruit development, but between four weeks after bloom and fruit ripening, NCER decreased as FBD increased. Although FBD explained only a small proportion of the variability observed in carbohydrate concentration and NCER, the data suggest that both the rapid depletion of starch reserves early in fruit development and the decrease in whole canopy NCER later in fruit development contribute to the detrimental effects of increased FBD on fruit development.
B.E. Maust, J.G. Williamson, and R.L. Darnell
M.K. Ehlenfeldt, A.D. Draper, and J.R. Clark
In the 1970s, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began developing low-chill-adapted highbush blueberry (Vacchizium corymbosum L.) for the southern United States (lat. 29° to 32°N) by using germplasm of the native southern species, V. darrowi Camp. This breeding work resulted in the release of several low-chill southern highbush blueberry (SHB) cultivars in the mid-1980s. These cultivars have been evaluated for yield and adaptation at several locations through the southern regional blueberry germplasm evaluation trials. These trials have shown that organic mulch is required for good performance of SHB. The one-fourth V. darrowi composition of SHB cultivars presents problems of freeze damage at some locations. This problem may be resolved by breeding cultivars through several alternative approaches.
P.M. Lyrene, W.B. Sherman, and R.H. Sharpe
D. Scott NeSmith, Arlen D. Draper, and James M. Spiers
S.D. Rooks, J.R. Ballington, and C.M. Mainland
Paul M. Lyrene and Wayne B. Sherman
John R. Clark, James N. Moore, and Arlen D. Draper
P.A.W. Swain and R.L. Darnell
Two cultivars of southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. interspecific hybrid), `Sharpblue' and `Wannabe', were container-grown outside in either a dormant or nondormant production system to determine how the two production systems affected carbohydrate (CH2O) status, growth, and development. Plants were maintained in the nondormant condition by continuous N fertilization throughout winter (average maximum/minimum temperatures of 17/5 °C). Plants in the nondormant system retained their foliage longer into the winter compared with plants in the dormant system. Flower bud number, density, fruit number, and total fruit fresh weight (FW) per plant were greater in the nondormant compared with the dormant system plants for both cultivars. Mean fruit FW was greater in dormant compared with nondormant `Wannabe' plants, while in `Sharpblue', mean fruit FW was similar in both systems. Cane and root CH2O concentrations in nondormant system plants were generally similar to or lower than those measured in dormant system plants. Assuming that longer leaf retention in nondormant system plants increased CH2O synthesis compared with dormant system plants, the patterns of reproductive/vegetative development and root/shoot CH2O concentrations indicate that the increased CH2O in nondormant system plants was allocated to increased reproductive growth in lieu of CH2O reserve accumulation. It is probable that this increased CH2O availability, combined with longer perception of short days due to longer leaf retention, were major factors in increasing flower bud initiation and yield in the nondormant compared with the dormant system plants.
Dennis E. Deyton, Carl E. Sams, Jim R. Ballington, and John C. Cummins
`Legacy' southern highbush blueberry plants at the Middle Tennessee Research and Education Center were sprayed on 22 Feb. 2005 with 0%, 6%, 9%, or 12% soybean oil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with five replications. Flower bud abortion was evaluated by sampling 25 flower buds/plant on 21 Mar., dissecting, and visually examining buds for browning of ovaries. Flower bud phonology was rated periodically until first bloom and then percentage of open bloom was rated every 2 to 3 days. Fruit were harvested for yield and 50-berry samples taken weekly for the first 4 weeks to determine berry size. Sprays of 6%, 9%, and 12% soybean oil delayed the 50% open bloom date of `Legacy' by 2, 4, and 9 days, respectively, but also caused 9%, 35% and 87% mortality of flower buds. `Legacy' bushes sprayed with 0%, 6%, 9% and 12% soybean yielded 11.6, 13.7, and 10.3, and 4.5 lb/bush, respectively. Berry size was increased by 14% to 23% by oil sprays. In a second experiment, `Climax' blueberries in a commercial planting in Spring City, Tenn., were sprayed on 4 Mar. with water, 5% TNsoy14 (96% soybean oil, a.i.), 500 ppm abscisic acid (ABA) (Valent BioSciences Corp., Long Grove, Ill.), or the combination of oil and ABA (seven replications). Flower bud development and bloom were rated as previously described. Spraying 5% TNsoy14 or 500 ppm ABA delayed the 50% open bloom date by 1 day and the combination of the two delayed bloom by an additional day. On 5 Apr., `Climax' bushes sprayed with 5% TNsoy14, 500 ppm ABA, and 5% TNsoy14 plus 500 ppm ABA had 49%, 41%, and 20% open bloom compared to 70% open bloom on control plants. The 5% oil, 500 ppm ABA, and the oil plus ABA treatments did not significantly affect crop load or berry size.
Glenn C. Wright, Kim D. Patten, and Malcolm C. Drew
`Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) and `Sharpblue' southern highbush blueberry (primarily V. corymbosum) were treated with 0, 25, or 100 Mm Na+ as Na2SO4 or NaC1, and 0, 1, 3, or 10 Mm supplemental Ca2+ in sand culture in the greenhouse. Greatest stomatal conductance (gs) and net assimilation (A) occurred in unsalinized `Tifblue' plants not given additional Ca2+. Stomatal conductance, A, transpiration (E), and xylem water potential(Ψ)of `Tifblue' and `Sharpblue' plants were all lowered as salinity increased, and these effects were more pronounced with NaCl than with Na2SO4. After 63 days, for plants given 100 Mm Na+ as NaCl, gs and net assimilation rate were reduced to only 10% of the unsalinized controls, while for plants salinized with 100 mm Na+ as Na2SO4, gs and A were 35% and 43%, respectively, of unsalinized controls. Leaf necrosis was more extensive on `Sharpblue' plants given NaCl than on `Tifblue' plants. Neither Ca2+ nor Na+ treatments led to severe chlorosis; reductions in leaf chlorophyll content were mainly due to necrosis. The Na+- induced reduction in gas exchange was associated with negative Ψw Ca2+ deficiency, or a combination of these factors. Additional factors leading to inhibition of gas exchange in NaCl- stressed plants include Cl- toxicity and leaf necrosis. Calcium supplements were unable to ameliorate NaCl damage in `Tifblue' or `Sharpblue' plants, possibly because of the inability of Ca2+ to counter Cl- entry and toxicity. In contrast, additional Ca2+ improved gs, A, Ψw, and leaf chlorophyll content of `Tifblue' plants that received Na2SO4. For plants treated with 25 mm Na+ as Na2SO4 and 1 mm Ca2+, gs was 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than in plants without added Ca2+. Low (1 mm) concentrations of Ca2+ were more effective in ameliorating the effects of 100 mm Na+ as Na2SO4. than were 3 or 10 mm Ca2+ supplements, possibly because higher Ca2+ concentrations damaged the metabolism of the calcifuge blueberry.