Seeds (intact or slit) of lettuce (Luctuca sativa L.) cultivars with greater ability to produce ethylene germinated better under stressful conditions. Highly significant correlations were found between ethylene production and germination in 0.1 m NaCI (- 0.49 MPa) solution at 25C (r = 0.95, intact seeds), in - 0.3 MPa PEG solution (r = 0.86, intact seeds; r = 0.81, slit seeds), and in water at 32C (r = 0.80, slit seeds) or 35C (r = 0.80, slit seeds). Slitting the seed coat increased the ethylene production and improved germination during osmotic restraint in most cultivars, particularly in `Mesa 659' and `Super 59'. The differing ability of cultivars to produce ethylene during stress generally corresponded with their ability to generate germination potential. Ethylene production and germination potential in untreated and ACC-treated `Mesa 659' seeds increased upon slitting under stressful conditions. Thus, the ability of seeds to produce ethylene and to generate high germination potential under stressful conditions may be used as criteria to select stress-tolerant lettuce cultivars. Chemical names used: polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), (2-chlorethyl) phosphoric acid (ethephon).
Janusz Prusinski and Anwar A. Khan
Kenna E. MacKenzie
The effects of pollination treatments on fruit set and five berry characteristics [mass, diameter, number of apparently viable seeds (well-developed, plump with dark seed coat), total seed number (includes apparently viable and partially developed seeds), and harvest date] were examined on three highbush blueberry cultivars. Pollination treatments included unpollinated, open pollinated, emasculated, and three hand pollinations that used pollen from the same flower, from the same cultivar, or from a different cultivar. Berries matured earliest and were smallest with the most apparently viable seeds in `Northland', `Patriot' had the greatest fruit set and smallest seed number, and `Bluecrop' matured the latest. Fruit set was greater, berry size larger, seed number smaller, and maturation later in 1990 than 1991. For all three cultivars, berries were generally smallest, latest maturing, and had the fewest seeds when pollination was prevented and were largest with the most seeds and earliest maturing in open visitation. Emasculation resulted in berries similar to those from unpollinated flowers. For berry characteristics, cross-pollination was of benefit for `Patriot' and possibly `Northland' but not `Bluecrop'. Thus, commercial highbush blueberry planting designs must be based on the pollination requirements of the particular cultivar. `Northland' berries almost always had seeds, while `Patriot' showed high levels and `Bluecrop' low levels of parthenocarpy.
M.J. Striem, G. Ben-Hayyim, and P. Spiegel-Roy
Excluding seeded offspring at an early stage could be of great value to the breeder concerned with the development of seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). We used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to identify molecular genetic markers, analyzing 82 individuals of a progeny resulting from a cross between `Early Muscat' (seeded) and `Flame Seedless'. Seven variables representing the traits of seedlessness were analyzed: mean fresh weight of one seed, total fresh weight of seeds per berry, perception of seed content, seed size categories evaluated visually, degree of hardness of the seed coat, degree of development of the endosperm, and degree of development of the embryo. Among 160 10mer primers, 110 gave distinct band patterns. Twelve markers yielded significant correlations with several subtraits of seedlessness, mainly with the mean fresh weight of one seed and the total fresh weight of seeds per berry. Multiple linear regression analysis resulted in high coefficients, such as R = 0.779 for fresh weight of seeds per berry, when the seven markers were included as independent variables in the model. Most of the seeded individuals, about 44% of the progeny, could be excluded using a two-step process of marker assisted selection.
Susumu Maekawa and William J. Carpenter
The germination of verbena (Verbena × hybrids) seed was found to be sensitive to high substrate moisture content. Cultivars varied in sensitivity to excessive substrate moisture content, with `Romance Scarlet' having higher total germination (G) in the presence of free water than `Showtime Blaze' or seedling `Red A'. Hilum cavity measurements of dry seeds showed larger hilum apertures with reduced depths for seeds of `Romance Scarlet' than for the others. Seed imbibition resulted in a rapid and extensive thickening of the hilum wall. The extent of hilum aperture closure varied among cultivars and the quantity of water present. Free water reduced hilum apertures 45% for `Romance Scarlet', 60% for `Showtime Blaze', and 86% for `Red A'. Seeds of `Romance Scarlet' and `Showtime Blaze' failed to germinate with lanolin covering the hilum, while seeds coated with lanolin, except for the hilum, had 67% to 78% G of nontreated seeds. This difference indicates that essential oxygen for the embryo was obtained through the hilum and micropyle of the seeds. Total germination varied with substrate moisture content, with seeds placed horizontally on 2%, 1%, or 0.5% agar having 80%, 75%, and 65% germination, respectively, for `Romance Scarlet' and 59%, 41%, and “24%, respectively, for `Showtime Blaze'.
D.P. Coyne, J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, David Nuland, Durward Smith, J.R. Stavely, J. Reiser, and L. Sutton
Common bacterial blight (CBB), rust (RU), and white mold (WM) are serious diseases of great northern (GN) and pinto (P) beans in Nebraska and Colorado. The bacterial diseases halo blight (HB) and brown spot (BS) are sporadic. Severe Fe-induced leaf chlorosis (Fe ILC) occurs on calcareous sites. Separate inoculated disease nurseries are used to screen for resistance to the pathogens causing the above diseases. Yields and seed quality of lines are also determined in non-disease trials. Sources of exotic resistance to the above pathogens and to Fe ILD have been identified and their inheritance determined. A non-structured recurrent selection scheme has mainly been used, occasionally with a backcross program, to combine high levels of the desired traits. Selection for highly heritable traits such as seed size, shape and color, maturity, plant architecture, and RU resistance occurs in early generations while traits of low heritability, such as CBB resistance, WM avoidance, yield, seed coat cracking resistance, and canning quality, are evaluated in separate replicated tests over several years and finally for yield in on-farm-trials. A number of multiple disease resistant, high-yielding, well-adapted GN and P lines are or will be released; P `Chase' (on about 30,000 acres in 1996) and GN WM 3-94-9 (for possible release).
H. U. Mekako and H. Y. Nakasone
The inheritance of 8 monogenically controlled plant, fruit, and seed characters in Carica species is reported. The gene for red stem is dominant to that for green stem and the gene for red petiole is dominant to that for green stem and the gene for red petiole is dominant to that for green petiole. Genes for white and purple-blush flower colors are dominant to those for pale yellow; while the gene for red skin color of ripe fruit is dominant to that for yellow. However, the gene for red skin color is not dominant to that for orange skin color; the heterozygote has pink-skinned fruits. The gene for ridging on the fruit (carpel fusion lines) is dominant to that for wide groove, which in turn is dominant to that for narrow groove. Spiny vs. non-spiny seed coat produces an intermediate F1, indicating no dominance. The gene for succulent fruit pulp is dominant to that for dry pulp. The gene for bushy branching is dominant to that for sparse branching.
Jorge Rodriguez-A. and Wayne B. Sherman
Attempts to select for flower bud chilling requirement (CR) at the seed stage were made in 58 families obtained from crosses and open-pollination of low chill selections and cultivars of peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from the Florida breeding program. A nonsignificant correlation (r = 0.08) between midparent bud CR and family seed CR was obtained. A low significant correlation (r = 0.21**) was obtained between individual seed CR and the CR of the resultant seedling. Seed coat removal had no effect on these correlations. Narrow sense heritability for bud CR as determined by parent-offspring regression was 0.50 ± 0.06. The small range in CR of the seed and pollen parents, 300 to 450 and 200 to 400 chill units, respectively, may explain the low correlation values obtained. The data suggest that it is impractical to screen for seedling CR based on seed CR where the CR for climatic adaptability must be held within a range of less than 300 chill units.
Thirty-six climbing accessions of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) were grown on trellises with minimal chemical inputs in 5 trials at 4 Colombian sites. Mean dry-seed yield of all accessions at all 4 sites was 2.6 mt/ha. Mean yield at the least favorable site was 1.7 mt/ha; at the most favorable site it was 4.8 mt/ha. Although growth was affected adversely on a soil with pH 4.2, the mean yield was 2.5 mt/ha. Mean daily dry-seed productivity rates of all accessions ranged from 15.1 kg/ha/day to 44.1 kg/ha/day for the several locations, in some cases exceeding rates reported for common beans and other legumes at the same location. Mean yield and number of pods per plant varied significantly among sites, dependent upon temperature and soil differences. Days to flower and to dry-seed harvest were relatively stable traits. No relationship was found between yield and seed-coat color. Production constraints were rainfall distribution and acid, phosphorus-deficient soils. These studies demonstrated high productivity of lima beans under adverse and favorable climatic and soil conditions in Colombia
Ross J. Traverse and Jerald W. Riekels
Soaking tomato seeds in MnS04 solutions of concentrations greater than 0.5 and 1 M MnS04 inhibited germination during treatment without affecting the viability of the seeds. The emergence and early growth of tomato seedlings and the emergence of onion seedlings in soil was greater using seeds previously treated with 1 M MnS04 than with untreated seeds or with seeds treated with 2 and 2.5 M MnS04. These treatments had no effect on onion seedling growth. Soaking seeds in 1 M MnS04 was effective in supplying the Mn requirements of tomato plants grown in Mn deficient solutions for Approx 40 days. Shorter periods of normal growth were obtained by treating the seeds with less than 1 M concn of MnS04.
The amount of Mn retained after desorption and washing was greater with each increase in the soaking temp (0, 10, 20, and 30°C). A substantial amount of the Mn retained by the tomato and onion seeds after soaking appeared to be located on the seed coat or in the “outer space” of the tissue. With onion seeds, an additional portion of the Mn retained after soaking was located on the exchange sites of the seeds.
C.L.H. Finneseth, Desmond R. Layne, and R.L. Geneve
Little scientific information is available describing morphological development of pawpaw during seed germination. To provide this information, a study was designed to outline important developmental stages and describe seedling characteristics within each stage. Stratified pawpaw seeds were sown in vermiculite and germinated at 25°C in a growth chamber. Ten seedlings were randomly chosen and destructively harvested at 5-day intervals starting at radicle protrusion. Length (mm), fresh and dry weight, and percentage of total dry weight were determined for seedling components. Pawpaw seeds have a small rudimentary embryo with all food reserves stored in a ruminate endosperm. Dry weight measurements showed a dramatic reallocation of reserves from the storage tissue to developing seedling parts. Initial embryo length was less than 3 mm, but within 70 days seedlings exceeded 350 mm. Twelve days after planting, simultaneous radicle and cotyledon growth occurred (3.4 and 3.0 mm, respectively), but neither hypocotyl nor epicotyl was visible. Radicle protrusion was observed at 15 days with radicle, cotyledon and hypocotyl lengths increasing to 4.4, 4.0, and 3.2 mm, respectively. Endosperm comprised 99.1% of total dry weight at this stage. The hypocotyl hook emerged after 30 days and endosperm comprised 76.1% of total dry weight. Cotyledons reached maximum length (29.0 mm) at day 40 and the epicotyl was discernible. At 55 days, the seed coat containing cotyledons and residual endosperm abscised and the average radicle, hypocotyl and epicotyl lengths were 182.0, 61.1, and 7.3 mm, respectively. It is suggested that the cotyledons primary function is absorption of food reserves from the endosperm for transfer to the developing seedling.