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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and James J. Polashock

Blueberries (family Ericaceae, species Vaccinium , commonly section Cyanococcus ) are a diverse taxonomic group, and blueberries currently in commercial production represent three major Vaccinium species and two ploidy levels: 4 x V

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Hirotoshi Tsuda, Hisato Kunitake, Mai Yamasaki, Haruki Komatsu, and Katsunori Yoshioka

Cyanococcus . In attempting to cross section Cyanococcus with species of other sections, blueberry breeders typically have used plants with the same chromosome numbers to avoid the ploidy-level barrier in addition to other genetic barriers, which might

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Hatsuhiko Okada, Yoshitaka Ohashi, Mamoru Sato, Hideyuki Matsuno, Toshiya Yamamoto, Hoytaek Kim, Tatsuro Tukuni, and Sadao Komori

were to confirm the ploidy level of the androgenic genotypes by flow cytometry; to confirm the zygosity state of the androgenic genotypes by SSR markers; to analyze S -alleles of the androgenic genotypes by the specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR

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Ryan N. Contreras and John M. Ruter

size estimation ( Leitch and Bennett, 2007 ); however, DAPI is acceptable for relative estimation and ploidy determination as used in the current study ( Parris et al., 2010 ). Chromosome counts are reported for six species ( Table 2 ; Fig. 1A

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Renwei Huang, Daofeng Liu, Min Zhao, Zhineng Li, Mingyang Li, and Shunzhao Sui

colchicine treatment. Chromosome counting. The ploidy level was determined by chromosome counting in metaphasic cells ( Rego et al., 2011 ). Chromosome detection was performed as described by Chen et al. (1979) . Two months after colchicine treatment, stem

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Zhitong Li and John M. Ruter

provided by tetraploid parents combines with a gamete containing one set of chromosomes provided by diploid pollen and forms a triploid zygote ( Acquaah, 2007 ). After identification of ploidy levels from induction treatments, diploid, triploid, and

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Chunxian Chen, Jude W. Grosser, Milica Ćalović, Patricia Serrano, Gemma Pasquali, Julie Gmitter, and Fred G. Gmitter Jr

followed by the processes of validation. Somatic hybrids have been identified first by the complementary and/or intermediate morphology of regenerants followed by confirmation of ploidy level, and finally molecular markers are used to confirm the presence

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Jude W. Grosser, Divya Kainth, and Manjul Dutt

) supplemented with gibberellic acid, which promotes shoot elongation. When shoots were ≈1 to 2 cm long, individual elongated shoots were moved to RMA rooting medium in Magenta boxes for further hardening and growth. Emergent shoots were analyzed for their ploidy

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Davut Keleş, Hasan Pınar, Atilla Ata, Hatıra Taşkın, Serhat Yıldız, and Saadet Büyükalaca

ploidy level of plants was detected using a flow cytometer (Partec, Münster, Germany). Young leaves of plants obtained from anther culture were put into petri dishes containing 400 µL extraction buffer (Partec 05–5002 CyStain ® ultraviolet Precise P

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Jin-Hu Wu, A. Ross Ferguson, Brian G. Murray, Alison M. Duffy, Yilin Jia, Canhong Cheng, and Philip J. Martin

Chromosome doubling has been widely explored as a bridge to help gene introgression between different ploidy levels both between and within species for crop improvement ( Hayward et al., 1993 ; Meru, 2012 ; Wu et al., 2011 ). Both fruit and seed