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Kevin M. Folta and Kayla Shea Childers

short description of the major photosensory systems sets the stage for plant manipulation based on stabilizing flux through these regulatory pathways. THE PHYTOCHROMES Only in the past 50 years has the fundamental regulation of photomorphogenic

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

the phytochromes (phy), which absorb primarily the red/far-red spectrum (600–800 nm) ( Furuya and Schäfer, 1996 ); the cryptochromes (cry), which absorb specifically blue/ultraviolet-A light (350–500 nm); the phototropins (phot) ( Cashmore et al., 1999

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Tomomi Eguchi, Ricardo Hernández, and Chieri Kubota

indoor production systems ( Massa et al., 2008 ). Under UV-deficient light quality, Morrow (1987) and Morrow and Tibbitts (1988) indicated the involvement of phytochrome in regulation of intumescence development in tomato. Leaf discs of wild tomato ( S

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Jasmine J. Mah, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

responses to R:FR have been extensively documented ( Casal and Smith, 1989 ; Chen and Chory, 2011 ; Demotes-Mainard et al., 2016 ). Plants respond to R:FR via phytochrome, a class of pigments which interconvert between red-absorbing and far

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Tessa Pocock

) phytochromes (PHY); 2) cryptochromes (CRY); and 3) light–oxygen–voltage sensors (LOV), which include phototropin (PHO) and zeitlupe (ZTL) ( Chen et al., 2004 ; Möglich et al., 2010 ). Each PR class preferentially absorbs and is activated by specific narrow

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Samuel Contreras, Mark A. Bennett, James D. Metzger, David Tay, and Haim Nerson

period during seed development for the light environment effects on seed germinability and longevity was at the end of seed development after physiological maturity (moment of maximum seed dry weight accumulation). Because of the importance of phytochrome

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Christos Lykas, Constantinos Kittas, Nikolaos Katsoulas, and Maria Papafotiou

radiation have been attempted, because it is well documented that light quality detected by phytochrome receptors affect plant growth and morphogenesis ( Smith, 1982 ). The phytochrome molecule exists in two photoconvertible states referred to as Pfr and Pr

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Yun Kong, Devdutt Kamath, and Youbin Zheng

lighting cost and increase production efficiency. The promoted elongation by B vs. R light was considered as one of the shade-avoidance responses mediated by blue light associated with weak phytochrome activity under certain light levels in previous studies

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Kellie J. Walters, Allison A. Hurt, and Roberto G. Lopez

certain photoperiod. Photoperiodic responses are regulated by phytochrome, a photoreceptor. When plants perceive R (600–700 nm) radiation, phytochrome converts to the biologically active form (P FR ). In contrast, when FR (700–800 nm) radiation is

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Yu Bai, Ying Zhou, Xiaoqing Tang, Yu Wang, Fangquan Wang, and Jie Yang

circadian clock associated 1 (CCA1, K12134), gigantea (GI, K12124), late elongated hypocotyl (LHY, K12133), flavin-binding kelch domain F box 1 (FKF1, K12116), phytochrome D (PHYD, K12122), cryptochrome 1 (CRY1, K12118), phytochrome A (PHYA, K12120