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Joshua D. Butcher, Charles P. Laubscher, and Johannes C. Coetzee

reemitted as fluorescence to those which are absorbed by a leaf (described by the Kautsky effect), the level of photosynthesis (photochemistry) can be observed and the content of chlorophyll within a leaf ascertained ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). Not only

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Domenica Scuderi, Francesco Giuffrida, Stefania Toscano, and Daniela Romano

was expressed as the F v /F m ratio, which indicates the maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, where F m = the maximal fluorescence of the dark-adapted state and F v = the variable fluorescence ( Schreiber et al., 1986 ). Statistical

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Giverson Mupambi, Stefano Musacchi, Sara Serra, Lee A. Kalcsits, Desmond R. Layne, and Tory Schmidt

the amount of energy used in photochemistry by PSII under steady-state photosynthetic lighting conditions ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). ΦPSII was sensitive to increased light stress, as shown by the diurnal decline with increasing light intensity

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Joseph G. Masabni, and Girisha Ganjegunte

NaCl salinity on some leaf nutrient concentrations, non-photochemical quenching and the efficiency of the PSII photochemistry of two Iranian pomegranate varieties under greenhouse and field conditions: Preliminary results J. Plant Nutr. 39 12 1752 1765

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Yuyao Kong, Ajay Nemali, Cary Mitchell, and Krishna Nemali

lighting on the growth, photosynthesis, and quality of hydroponic lettuce in a plant factory Intl. J. Agr. Biol. Eng. 11 33 40 Zhen, S van Iersel, M.W. 2016 Far-red light is needed for efficient photochemistry and photosynthesis J. Plant Physiol. 209 115

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Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, James Altland, Lifei Chen, and Lijuan Jiang

. 2003 Salinity treatment shows no effects on photosystem II photochemistry, but increases the resistance of photosystem II to heat stress in halophyte Suaeda salsa J. Expt. Bot. 54 851 860 Morgan, K.T. Wheaton, T.A. Parsons, L.R. Castle, W.S. 2008

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Tao Hu, Haiying Yi, Longxing Hu, and Jinmin Fu

interactive effects of salinity and potassium deprivation Plant Soil 334 449 460 Han, S. Tang, N. Jiang, H.X. Yang, L.T. Li, Y. Chen, L.S. 2009 CO 2 assimilation, photosystem II photochemistry, carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant system of citrus leaves

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Lloyd L. Nackley, Jig Han Jeong, Lorence R. Oki, and Soo-Hyung Kim

on energetics, light availability, and photochemistry ( Sharkey et al., 2007 ). These factors were less affected by CO 2 enrichment, yet can be significantly affected by N as shown in our results on J max ( Table 1 ). The decreased J max values

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Krishna Nemali and Marc W. van Iersel

measurement provides information about underlying processes that could affect photochemistry ( Maxwell and Johnson, 2000 ). Changes in optical properties (increased reflectance) under drought conditions can also affect dark-adapted Φ PSII values ( Murchie and

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Jack Olson and Matthew Clark

transport and is an indicator of the operating efficiency of PSII photochemistry ( Murchie and Lawson, 2013 ). We hypothesized that variegated grape seedlings had reduced PSII activity as measured by the effective PSII quantum yield compared with WT