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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, Bryan T. Vinyard, and J. Marion White

pathway is complex and the regulation of carotenogenesis is poorly understood ( Romer and Fraser, 2005 ). Phytoene is the first step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and it is desaturated and isomerized into all-trans lycopene. Two possible

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Xue Li, Chen Zang, Hang Ge, Jing Zhang, Donald Grierson, Xue-ren Yin, and Kun-song Chen

enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, such as PAL, C4H, 4CL, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:NADPH moxidoreductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), etc ( Barros et al., 2015 ; Bonawitz and Chapple, 2012 ). Many of the coding genes for these enzymes have been

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Jianfeng Liu, Bowen Yang, Yuetong Ming, Yuchu Zhang, and Yunqing Cheng

(BLAST) ( Altschul et al., 1990 ) was used to align them to NT and KEGG. Subsequently, GO annotations were obtained using Blast2GO (B2G) ( Conesa et al., 2005 ) with NR annotations, followed by GO classification analysis. The KEGG pathway functional

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Craig Brodersen, Cody Narciso, Mary Reed, and Ed Etxeberria

, 1968 ). As the flow of photoassimilates is progressively obstructed by phloem necrosis, starch granules begin to accumulate in sieve elements and all parenchyma cell types along the radial and longitudinal transport pathway, but especially in

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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

tolerance to drought stress involves the activation of stress signaling transduction pathways, which include multiple transcriptional factors or genes ( Dortje et al., 2011 ). CDPK and MAPK are two critical kinases involved in Ca 2+ signaling

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Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Fátima Medina-Lara, Yereni Minero-García, Luis W. Torres-Tapia, Sergio R. Peraza-Sánchez, and Manuel Martínez-Estévez

generally accepted that capsaicinoids are produced solely in pepper fruits, although the localization of the biosynthesis and accumulation pathways within the fruits has been debated ( Stewart et al., 2007 ). Within the pepper fruit, capsaicinoids chiefly

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Bo Zhang, Xue-Ren Yin, Ji-Yuan Shen, Kun-Song Chen, and Ian B. Ferguson

Change in fruit volatile production is one of the main processes occurring during fruit ripening and senescence. Fatty acid-derived straight-chain aldehydes produced through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway are widely found in many fruit ( Baldwin

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang, and Haiying Xu

flavonoids ( Wang et al., 2010 ). The enzymes responsible for each catalytic step of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in grapevine have been well characterized ( Petrussa et al., 2013 , Fig. 1 ). The first key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis is Vv CHS

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Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Fen-Qin Zhang, Shi-Ping Li, Lan-Ying Hu, Yan-Hong Li, Song-Hua Wang, and Hua Zhang

florets in darkness using biochemical and molecular analysis and the interplay of H 2 S with sulfur metabolism, the ethylene pathway, and protein degradation. Materials and Methods Plant materials and treatment. Fresh broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var

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Lingyan Chen, Jinli Lai, Tianyou He, Jundong Rong, Muhammad Waqqas Khan Tarin, and Yushan Zheng

changes that involves four stages, 15 reactions, and 15 related enzymes ( Wang et al., 2009 ). In the presence of any barrier blocking this pathway, chlorophyll biosynthesis is ended. Studies on these blocking steps have focused on leaf color mutants or