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Safwan Shiyab

concentrations of heavy metals induce oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical (O 2 – ), singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), and H 2 O 2 in plant cells. This process is responsible for peroxidative

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Ju Ding, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, and Jing-Quan Yu

. Application of ABA and SA as well as exposure to low temperature all resulted in a transient elevation of H 2 O 2, leading to an increased tolerance to salt, high light, heat, and oxidative stress ( Dat et al., 1998 ; Prasad et al., 1994 ; Zhang et al

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M.E. El-Mahrouk, A.R. El-Shereif, Y.H. Dewir, Y.M. Hafez, Kh. A. Abdelaal, S. El-Hendawy, H. Migdadi, and R.S. Al-Obeed

a close link between oxidation stress and hyperhydricity ( Chakrabarty et al., 2006 ; Dewir et al., 2006 , 2014 ; Tian et al., 2014 ), ultimately resulting in plant malformation and malfunctioning. Several approaches, including modifications to

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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

involved in an ascorbate-glutathione cycle leading to enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ) leaves ( Xia et al., 2009 ). Polyamine could activate H 2 O 2 and Ca signaling to regulate antioxidant enzyme activities and genes

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Shanshan Sun, Mengying An, Liebao Han, and Shuxia Yin

system in plants play an important role in protecting plants from oxidative stress: SOD is the first line of defense to counter the superoxide (O 2 − ) radical and catalyzes the conversion of O 2 − to H 2 O 2 , then H 2 O 2 can be eliminated by CAT, POD

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Cong Li, Lie-Bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

dismutases, which catalyze the dismutation of O 2 –• to H 2 O 2 , have been considered as the first line of defense against oxidative stress. Catalase can convert H 2 O 2 into O 2 and H 2 O. These antioxidant enzymes including those in the ascorbate

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Lushan Ghimire, Davie Kadyampakeni, and Tripti Vashisth

-related processes, ROS metabolism, immune system, and ion transport processes. Some specific enriched GO categories were lipoprotein biosynthetic and metabolism (GO:0042158, GO:0042157), response to oxidative stress (GO:0006979), hydrogen peroxide metabolic process

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Antonios Petridis, Magdalene Koukourikou, Thomas Sotiropoulos, and Dimitrios Stylianidis

Various studies have demonstrated a close link between oxidative stress and development of different ailments such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases ( Halvorsen et al., 2002 ). The human body has an antioxidant defense

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Longxing Hu, Zehui Huang, Shuqian Liu, and Jinmin Fu

+ , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ ; cause adverse effects on ion homeostasis, which lead to premature leaf aging; less cell division and elongation; and reduces leaf and root growth ( Munns, 2002 ; Zhu, 2001 ). In addition, salinity also results in oxidative stress

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Clíssia Barboza da Silva, Julio Marcos-Filho, Pablo Jourdan, and Mark A. Bennett

. Bot. 88 171 177 Ahammed, G.J. Choudhary, S.P. Chen, S. Xia, X. Shi, K. Zhou, Y. Yu, J. 2013a Role of brassinosteroids in alleviation of phenanthrene-cadmium co-contamination-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress in tomato J. Expt. Bot