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Olya Rysin and Frank J. Louws

enhance fruit quality ( Lee et al., 2010 ). Grafting could potentially become an important part of integrated pest management in vegetable crops in the United States in the near future due to increased pathogen densities, reliance on pathogen susceptible

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Cary L. Rivard and Frank J. Louws

determine the usefulness of grafting as an economically sound integrated pest management tool for tomato production in the southeastern United States. Materials and Methods Grafting protocol. Grafted transplants were produced in greenhouse

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Herbaud P.F. Zohoungbogbo, Enoch G. Achigan-Dako, Judith Honfoga, Shih-Wen Lin, Tsung-Han Lin, Yen-Wei Wang, Yuan-Li Chan, Peter Hanson, and Derek W. Barchenger

resistance ( Sun et al., 2018 ) in combination with integrated pest management strategies as the most viable option ( Frantz et al., 2004 ). The breeding lines AVPP1932 and AVPP1925 were found to be field-tolerant to the predominant aphid-transmitted viruses

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James D. McCreight and Yong-Biao Liu

lettuce production. Greenhouse data suggest increased expression or effectiveness of partial resistance with plant growth. Partial resistance may, either alone or as a component of integrated pest management, delay or prevent emergence of resistance

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Yan Chen, Kimberly A. Williams, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Michelle L. Bell

Host-plant nutritional status may affect the incidence and development of western flower thrips (WFT; Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande). Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the responses of WFT population levels on impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook.f.) when plants were fertilized with commercially practiced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Impatiens `Dazzler Violet' were grown with nutrient treatment combinations of 2 N rates (8 and 20 mm) by 2 P rates (0.32 and 1.28 mm). Individual plants grown in thrips-proof cages were inoculated with WFT at 2 or 4 weeks after transplant, in separate experiments, representing vegetative or reproductive stages of plant growth, respectively. Plants were destructively sampled weekly for 4 weeks following inoculation. Plant tissue N and P concentrations were significantly different across treatments: 8 and 20 mm N resulted in 4.9% and 6.3% N in tissue, respectively; 0.32 and 1.28 mm P resulted in 0.37% and 0.77% P in tissue, respectively. Nitrogen rates had no effect on WFT population levels. However, 4 weeks after inoculation with adult female WFT during the vegetative growth stage, plants fertilized with 1.28 mm P had more adult WFT than those fertilized with 0.32 mm P. Feeding damage varied depending on whether plants were inoculated in the vegetative stage with adult WFT or during reproductive growth with immature WFT. Plant size and number of flowers were lower in plants inoculated during the vegetative growth stage with adult WFT but were not affected when inoculation with immature WFT occurred during the reproductive stage, as most WFT were found feeding inside the nectariferous spurs of the flowers. Tissue N was lower in WFT-inoculated plants compared to noninoculated plants in both experiments.

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L.S. Osborne and A.R. Chase

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. plants treated three times with 850 mg·liter-1 of the growth retardant chlormequat chloride (CCC) were less susceptible to infestation with Tetranychus urticae (Koch) than water-treated control plants. The difference in mite numbers was noted within 8 days after releasing mites onto test plants. Mean number of mites per treated plant was 3.7, compared to 30 on nontreated plants. This activity was observed on all treated plants 6 months after applying CCC. Significant differences were observed on treated plants that were defoliated and allowed to produce new foliage before being evaluated. Therefore, surface chemical residues were not responsible for reducing mite infestations on CCC-treated plants.

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P. Thompson, R. B. How, and G. B. White


During the 1978 growing season, data on the number, timing and dosages of pesticide applications were collected in Wayne County, New York from 23 growers not participating in the New York Tree Fruit Program (NYTFP). Thirty-three blocks of apples were matched with 33 similar blocks from growers participating in the NYTFP. Average annual pesticide costs for participants were $48 and $71 per hectare lower than for nonparticipants, for fresh and processing fruit, respectively. No change in quality or yield of fruit was observed.

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Carl E. Bell, Cheryl A. Wilen, and Alison E. Stanton

1 Regional Advisor-Invasive Plants. 2 Area Integrated Pest Management Advisor, Univ. of California Statewide IPM Program. 3 Former Graduate Student. This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education and

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R. Kasten Dumroese, Robert L. James, and David L. Wenny

Inoculum of Douglas fir root diseases caused by the fungi Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon is carried from crop to crop in reused containers. Soaking containers for 90 seconds in 80 °C water removed ≈99% of Fusarium and 100% of Cylindrocarpon inoculum between growing cycles. Overall seedling growth was also improved: seedlings grown in containers soaked between growing cycles were 10% taller and had 20% more biomass than seedlings grown in nonsoaked containers. We obtained a 13% increase in the number of deliverable seedlings from containers soaked in hot water between crops, from the use of copper coated containers, or from both practices combined.

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A.A. Csizinszky and D.J. Schuster

The impact of two insecticide spray application schedules (weekly or on demand), three N and K rates [1x, 1.5x, and 2x; 1x = (kg·ha-1) 130N-149K], and two transplant container cell sizes [small, 21 mm wide × 51 mm deep (7.5 cm 3), and large, 38 mm wide × 70 mm deep (33.7 cm”)] on `Market Prize' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group) yield was investigated in Fall and Winter 1982-83 and Spring 1983. Fenvalerate was sprayed at 0.112 kg·ha-1. For the weekly schedule, 10 sprays were applied in fall and winter and nine in spring; for the on-demand schedule, two sprays were applied in both seasons. There were more insect-damaged heads in both seasons in the plots sprayed on demand than in those sprayed weekly. In fall and winter, the combination of a weekly schedule with 1.5x and 2x N and K rates increased marketable yields over those of the on-demand schedule. Marketable yields at the 1.5x and 2x N and K rates were similar for plants in small or large transplant container cells, but the lx N and K rate applied to plants in small cells reduced yields. In spring, both application schedules produced similar yields, but yield increased with increasing N and K rates and large transplant container cells. Insecticide application schedule and cell size did not affect leaf nutrient concentration significantly, but increasing N and K rates resulted in higher N, P, and K leaf concentrations. Concentrations of N and K in the soil at 42 days after transplanting (DAT) were higher with increasing N and K rates. At harvest (86 DAT), only K concentrations had increased with N and K rates. Chemical name used: cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl 1-4 chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl benzeneacetate) (fenvalerate).