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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Barbara J. Smith, and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

., 2010 ; Rebollar-Alviter et al., 2011 ; Zheng et al., 2017 ). T. minima is a heteroecious fungus requiring both primary and alternate host plants to complete its life cycle ( Hiratsuka 1965 ). In the northern United States, the disease cycle begins

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Yunwen Wang, Huangjun Lu, Richard N. Raid, Gregg S. Nuessly, and Georgy Faroutine

a few infected plants ( Toussaint, 1999 ). A broad list of potential host plant species has been provided after inoculation of these plants with Xcv ( Tsuchiya et al., 1981 ). Robinson et al. (2006) identified pepper as a potential crop host of

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Manuela Baietto and A. Dan Wilson

; Hatakka, 1994 , 2001 ; Tuor et al., 1995 ). Investigations of host–pathogen interactions have focused on the capability of wood decay fungi to overcome host-tree defenses ( Schwarze and Baum, 2000 ; Schwarze and Fink, 1997 ) and the ability of trees to

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Michele R. Warmund, Jeanne D. Mihail, and Kaley Hensel

that requires two hosts, sedge ( Carex spp.) and American elderberry, to complete its lifecycle ( Mims, 1981 ; Saccardo, 1891 ). Of the five spore stages of P. sambuci , pycniospores and aeciospores develop on elderberry, whereas urediniospores

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Kaori Itagaki, Toshio Shibuya, Motoaki Tojo, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya

been suggested that a greater leaf mass per area and lower N content and the consequent increase in C:N ratio of host plant at higher [CO 2 ] suppress the development of foliar diseases. Physiological responses opposite to those observed under higher

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Mark L. Gleason, Amy Wang Wong, Donald R. Lewis, Luis Felipe Arauz Cavallini, Barbara C. Clawson, Kevin R. Duerfeldt, Hayley M. Nelson, and Gail R. Nonnecke

programs—in which student groups from two countries exchange visits—are relatively uncommon but provide opportunities to deepen cultural and technical learning. For example, faculty and students host study abroad participants in their respective country

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker, and Mark E. Uchanski

crops should also be a non-host for nematodes or able to suppress nematode populations in the field. Southern RKN ( Meloidogyne incognita ), a plant–parasitic nematode, is of great concern to chile pepper growers in southern New Mexico ( Walker et al

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Nancy J. Chen, Marisa M. Wall, Robert E. Paull, and Peter A. Follett

). Avocado is generally considered to be a poor host for tephritid fruit flies ( Aluja et al., 2004 ), but fruit become increasingly favorable hosts after harvest as they ripen and soften ( Armstrong et al., 1983 ; Oi and Mau, 1989 ). At one time, ‘Sharwil

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Aaron Heinrich, Shinji Kawai, and Jim Myers

). Eradicating the clubroot pathogen from an infested field is unlikely because clubroot produces thick-walled resting spores, some of which may remain viable for 17 years or more in the absence of a host ( Wallenhammar, 1996 ). However, most spores die off

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Ryan S. Donahoo, William W. Turechek, Judy A. Thies, and Chandrasekar S. Kousik

and Keinath, 2008 ). Therefore, alternative strategies to manage P. capsici on vegetable crops are needed. Use of host-plant resistance to manage diseases is probably the most economical and environmentally friendly strategy. Screening of PIs and