Electrolyte leakage was used to quantify heat stress injury in `Early Calwonder' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaf disks. Lethal temperatures were estimated from the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve. An interaction between exposure temperature and duration was observed, with lethal temperatures decreasing linearly from 53 to 46C as exposure duration increased exponentially from 5 to 240 min. Exposure to two 7.5-min periods at 51.5C, interrupted by 4 hours at 21C, resulted in the same injury as a continuous 15-min exposure to 51.5C. Plants grown at 22/20C day/night cycles and held 24 hours at 38/30C had increased their heat tolerance by 3C, 51 to 54C; these plants reacclimated to 52C 48 hours after having been transferred back to 22/20C. Leaf disks acclimated significantly in vitro in 1 hour and were fully acclimated by 4 hours at 38C.
Jeffrey Anderson, Greg McCollum, and Warren Roberts
D. Michael Glenn, Gary J. Puterka, Stephen R. Drake, Thomas R. Unruh, Allen L. Knight, Pedro Baherle, Ernesto Prado, and Tara A. Baugher
Particle film technology is a developing pest control system for tree fruit production systems. Trials were performed in Santiago, Chile, and York Springs, Pa., Wenatchee and Yakima, Wash., and Kearneysville, W. Va., to evaluate the effect of particle treatments on apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh) Manst.] leaf physiology, fruit yield, and fruit quality. Leaf carbon assimilation was increased and canopy temperatures were reduced by particle treatments in seven of the eight trials. Yield and/or fruit weight was increased by the particle treatments in seven of the eight trials. In Santiago and Kearneysville, a* values of the fruit surface were more positive in all trials although a* values were not increased in Wenatchee and Yakima. Results indicate that particle film technology is an effective tool in reducing heat stress in apple trees that may result in increased yield potential and quality.
Tracy L Wootten, John J. Frett, and W. Edwin Kee
In an effort to increase lima bean yields in Delaware, the documentation of lima bean plant development and the comparison of Delaware and California lima bean production was conducted. Delaware lima bean yields have averaged 1905 kg·ha-1 for the last 30 years. California averages 3923-4484 kg·ha-1. Cultivar M-15 is used by both states for production. Plant population density, plant fresh weight, and final yield was greater in California than in Delaware. Although plant populations were the same in 1992, yields remained higher in California than in Delaware. High night temperatures have an adverse affect on lima bean yields. Minimum temperatures from both states were compared. Minimum temperatures from the California planting were greater than the minimum temperatures for the late planting in Delaware.
Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez
, suggesting that heat stress was the cause of growth reduction in bell pepper plants. Similarly, in tomato and tomatillo grown in Tifton, GA, like in this study, the use of dark mulches produced high RZTs resulting in reduced plant vegetative growth during the
Jun Song, Lihua Fan, Charles F. Forney, and Michael A. Jordan
Volatile emissions and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated as potential signals of heat injury for apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit. `McIntosh', `Cortland', `Jonagold', and `Northern Spy' apples were exposed to 46 °C for 0, 4, 8, or 12 hours (heat treatments). Following treatments, fruit were kept at 20 °C and evaluated after 1, 2, 4, or 7 days. Heat treatments induced volatile production including ethanol and ethyl acetate. The 8 and 12 hours heat treatments increased ethanol and ethyl acetate production in all four cultivars by as much as 170- and 11-fold, respectively, 1 day after treatments. Heat treatments also reduced ethylene production and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heat for 12 hours caused serious flesh browning. Among the cultivars investigated, `Northern Spy' and `McIntosh' were most susceptible to heat stress based on the degree of flesh browning. Correlation coefficients of heat stress induced ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence with flesh browning were 0.82 and -0.66, respectively. The nondestructive measurements of ethanol emission and chlorophyll fluorescence have potential to identify stressed fruit with reduced quality or compromised storage life.
D. Michael Glenn, Amnon Erez, Gary J. Puterka, and Patricia Gundrum
Processed-kaolin particle films (PKPFs) are used commercially in large quantities on horticultural crops to repel insects, and reduce heat stress and solar injury of fruit. Our studies determined the effect of two processed-mineral particle film materials (kaolin and calcium carbonate), on whole plant carbon assimilation, water use efficiency, yield, mean fruit weight and quality in `Empire' apple [(Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh Mansf.))] over a four-year period. The application of a PKPF reduced canopy temperature, and probably reduced environmental stress, resulting in increased mean fruit weight and red color in two of the four years of the study. Whole canopy carbon assimilation studies indicated increased carbon assimilation only under conditions of high air temperature. The PKPF sprayed leaves also had reduced water use efficiency; likely due to increased stomatal conductance associated with reduced leaf temperature. Calcium carbonate had none of the positive effects of PKPF and reflected more photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) than the PKPF.
Seedling leaf segments of 2 Cucumis melo L. cultivars were heated for 15 min at 50°C to observe the influence of duration of temperature conditioning on the acclimation and deacclimation of membrane thermostability. The percentage of injury was measured by the increase in solution conductivity due to electrolyte leakage from leaf segments. Leaves from seedlings held for 5 days at 15° had a higher percentage of injury following heat stress then those held 5 days at 35°. Acclimation for 2 to 4 hr at 35° was enough to reduce the percentage of injury to leaves from 15°-grown plants. Deacclimation for 8 hr at 15° increased the percentage of injury to leaves from plants grown at 35°. Heat injury regressed as a function of mean relative leaf-blade growth rate with temperature and leaf age with temperature yielded predictive regression equations suggesting leaf age is better as a predictor of membrane thermostability than is leaf growth rate.
S. J. Wallner, M. R. Becwar, and J. D. Butler
Injury to turfgrass leaf segments was measured as percent electrolyte leakage as affected by the duration and level of imposed heat stress. Species differences in heat tolerance were most apparent when injury was monitored over time at 50°C, using leaf segments which were obtained from heat-hardened plants and immersed in distilled water during the stress treatment. Quantitative differences in heat tolerance in vitro were consistent with qualitative descriptions of drought resistance for most of the species tested.
Ursula K. Schuch
Influence of irrigation regime on growth of select field-grown tree species in a semiarid climate J. Environ. Hort. 27 134 138 Harlan, S.L. Brazel, A.J. Prashad, L. Stefanov, W.L. Larsen, L. 2006 Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress
Ockert Greyvenstein, Brent Pemberton, Terri Starman, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne
than did BD (10.7 nodes). The heat stress treatments did not affect the number of vegetative nodes produced. Discussion Flower dry weight and flower abscission were most affected at the visible bud stage, which corresponds to stress treatments during