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Guihong Bi and Carolyn F. Scagel

storage and result in poor growth and flower development during forcing. Foliar sprays of urea in the fall after terminal bud set can increase reserve N in deciduous plants without stimulating new growth late in the season ( Cheng et al., 2002 ; Sanchez

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Cyrus A. Smith, James L. Walworth, Mary J. Comeau, Richard J. Heerema, and Joshua D. Sherman

each of seven trees selected for this study. One of five different foliar spray treatments were applied to the individually selected shoots on each of the seven trees (replicates). The foliar treatments were 1) water control (distilled water alone), 2

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Uttara C. Samarakoon, James E. Faust, and John M. Dole

) treatment without the nonionic surfactant. All treatments were applied weekly to poinsettia and geranium stock plants as a foliar spray between 0800 and 1100 hr at a concentration of 203 mL·m −2 bench space. Sampling for each analysis mentioned below

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Marta Pardos, Rafael Calama, Gregorio Montero, and José A. Pardos

Four concentrations of paclobutrazol (PBZ) and two application methods (foliar spray–soil drench) were tested on 3-month-old container-grown cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings. Shoot height was affected by PBZ concentration and application technique. Time course of height was modelled by nonlinear mixed model analysis. Reduced shoot height was the result of shortened and fewer internodes. A 25 to 625 ppm soil drench or 625 to 15,000 ppm foliar spray controlled over vegetative growth, resulting in a reduction between 13% and 90% in plant size relative to untreated controls. Seedlings responded to soil drench at a lower PBZ concentration than for a foliar spray, but the danger of irreversible overdosing seems greater for a soil drench. Soil drench—and foliar spray to a lesser extent—also affected other shoot and root growth traits. PBZ dose decreased root volume and dry weights in a quadratic fashion with increasing dose, but decreased diameter and number of leaves linearly.

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla, and Emily B. Merewitz

every 2 d to maintain soil volumetric water content (SVC) at 25% (v/v); 2) well-watered plants treated with GABA 50 m m (99% or greater; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) applied as a foliar spray; 3) well-watered plants treated with 70 m m GABA; 4

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Bruce W. Wood

are potentially met through several early spring foliar sprays each year ( Smith et al., 1979 ) by broadcast application of relatively large amounts of Zn fertilizers to soils ( Brooks, 1964 ) or by trunk implants or injection ( Worley et al., 1980

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James L. Gibson and Brian E. Whipker

Ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) plants of cultivars `Osaka White' and `Nagoya Red' were treated with paclobutrazol and uniconazole as foliar sprays or soil drenches. These treatments were compared to the industry standard of daminozide foliar sprays. Ten plant growth regulator (PGR) drench treatments (in mg a.i./pot) were applied 22 days after potting: paclobutrazol at 1 to 16 and uniconazole at 0.125 to 2. Thirteen PGR foliar sprays (in mg/L) were also applied: paclobutrazol at 5 to 80, uniconazole at 2 to 32, daminozide at 2500, 2500 (twice, with the second application occurring 14 days later), or 5000, and an untreated control. Applying drenches of paclobutrazol at 4 mg or uniconazole at 0.5 mg controlled height by 16 to 25%, but at the cost of $0.11 per pot would not be economically feasible for growers to use. Paclobutrazol foliar sprays at concentrations of up to 80 mg/L were ineffective in controlling plant height and diameter of either `Osaka White' or `Nagoya Red'. Uniconazole foliar sprays between 2 and 8 mg/L were effective in controlling height (by 19%) and diameter (by 15%) as daminozide foliar sprays of 2500 mg/L, sprayed twice, with a cost to the grower of $0.02 per pot.

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Jiaxin Li, Yingli Ma, and Yinfeng Xie

suspension of Fe 3 O 4 NPs was prepared by ultrasonic oscillations. The foliar spraying method was employed in the experiment. About 500 mL of solution per area was applied to the foliage until the solution dripped from the plant. According to the root

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

that can be easily shipped and marketed to consumers ( Currey et al., 2010 ). Foliar sprays, substrate drenches, liner dips, or bulb, tuber, and rhizome soaks or dips are common application methods for PGRs and one or more of these techniques are

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Ockert P.J. Stander and Paul J.R. Cronjé

-pyridinyloxyacetic acid are extensively used in the south african citrus industry as commercial chemical thinning agents when applied as foliar sprays during and directly after the physiological fruit drop period ( Agustí et al., 2002 ). Although not widely