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Yanrong Lv, Ibrahim I. Tahir, and Marie E. Olsson

such as the characteristics of the bark, production and movement of different plant hormones, and top-root relationships ( Ferree and Warrington, 2003 ; Rom and Carlson, 1987 ). Dwarfing rootstock ‘M.9’ and semi-dwarfing rootstock ‘MM.106’ are commonly

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Haijun Zhu and Eric T. Stafne

Due to the strong vegetative nature of relatively young pecan trees and the absence of dwarfing rootstocks or cultivars, controlling tree size is a major problem in high-density pecan orchards. Paclobutrazol, an effective inhibitor of gibberellin

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Edward Żurawicz, Dorota Kruczyńska, Mariusz Lewandowski, and Krzysztof Rutkowski

margin is serrate, and tip of the leaf blade is sharp. Results of our trials show that ‘M.9’ and ‘P 16’ dwarf rootstocks can be recommended for ‘Ligolina’ ( Kruczyńska, 2008 ). Fig. 3. Trees of ‘Ligolina’. Frost, pest, and disease susceptibility. The

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

scion and the rootstock. Therefore, a reduction of vigor can be achieved either by using dwarfing rootstocks or dwarf scion cultivars (genetic dwarf). Although breeding efforts focused on rootstocks for vigor and architecture control, more breeders are

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-density Cherry Production Sweet cherry growers have been reluctant to adopt new precocious, productive, and dwarfing rootstocks due to the lack of practical crop load management tools. Whiting et al. (p. 66 ) report on the potential for chemical blossom

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Nadia A. Valverdi and Lee Kalcsits

rootstock, ‘Supporter4’, had lower color development and lower starch degradation than more dwarfing rootstocks such as ‘B.9’ and ‘M.9’. Here, ‘G.890’ and ‘G.41’ fruit had the highest probability of bitter pit among the rootstocks used, and ‘M.9’ and ‘B.9

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Ana Pina, Pilar Errea, Ana Wünsch, and Rafael Gella

’ classed as a dwarfing rootstock, ‘Masto de Montañana’ and ‘CAB6P’ as intermediate vigor rootstocks, and ‘St Lucia 64’ as a medium/high vigor rootstock. The SPAD values taken in 2010 showed higher chlorophyll content in ‘Monrepos’ 39.675 than in the

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Adolfo Rosati, Andrea Paoletti, Giorgio Pannelli, and Franco Famiani

or even dwarf cultivars ( Barranco, 1997 ; León Moreno, 2007 ; Sonnoli, 2001 ) and dwarfing rootstocks ( Baldoni and Fontanazza, 1990 ; Barranco, 1997 ; Pannelli et al., 1992 , 2002 ; Troncoso et al., 1990 ). Some cultivars, such as Arbequina

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Travis Robert Alexander, Jaqueline King, Edward Scheenstra, and Carol A. Miles

where dwarfing rootstock do not perform well ( Durrant and Durrant, 2009 ). In Washington, modern cider apple orchards are dominated by dwarfing rootstocks [‘Malling 9’ (M.9), ‘Malling 27’ (M.27), ‘Merton-Malling 106’ (MM.106)] and have an average

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Qijing Zhang and Dajun Gu

important dwarf rootstock species used for peach, plum, and apricot ( Ding, 1997 ). Of these species, P. tomentosa has been cultivated for fruit production in China for over 2000 years, owing to its cold resistance and good fruiting habit ( Yü and Li, 1986