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Araceli M. Vera-Guzman, Maria T. Lafuente, Emmanuel Aispuro-Hernandez, Irasema Vargas-Arispuro, and Miguel A. Martinez-Tellez

performance anion-exchange chromatography Lado, J. Rodrigo, M.J. Zacarías, L. 2015 Analysis of ethylene biosynthesis and perception during postharvest cold storage of Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruits Food Sci. Technol. Intl. 21 7 537 546 Lafuente, M.T. Zacarias

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J.E.P. Debaene, I.L. Goldman, and B.S. Yandell

Two mild and two pungent onion (Allium cepa L.) selections (hereafter referred to as cultitypes), W420B, W424B, MSU8155B, and Exhibition, were grown at two locations in two states (Wisconsin and Oregon) during 1994 and 1995. Onion bulbs were harvested, stored at 4 °C and sampled for antiplatelet activity, pungency, and soluble solids 10 days after harvest and every 40 days during a 210-day postharvest storage period. Significant cultitype × state and cultitype × year interactions were detected. However, these were primarily due to the change in rank of cultitypes within the mild or pungent group. Averaged over all environments, antiplatelet activity was significantly greater in 1994 compared to 1995 for all cultitypes. Significantly greater antiplatelet activity was measured for three out of four cultitypes grown in Oregon compared to Wisconsin. During postharvest storage, antiplatelet activity increased 61% and 56% across all cultitypes and across both states during 1994, and across all cultitypes in Wisconsin during 1995, respectively. Although pungency determination can be a good indicator for relative rankings of different cultitypes for antiplatelet activity, changes in pungency were not correlated with changes in antiplatelet activity during postharvest storage. Results demonstrate cultitype, environment, duration of postharvest storage and genotype × environment interactions influence pungency, soluble solids, and antiplatelet activity, which should be considered when assessing onion-induced antiplatelet activity.

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Mariya Khodakovskaya, Richard McAvoy, Hao Wu, Jeanne Peters, and Yi Li

Chill injury and leaf senescence occur in plants held in prolonged cold, dark storage. To increase tolerance to these conditions, Nicotiana alata and N. tabacum were transformed with either the FAD7 or IPT genes under the control of a cold-inducible promoter (cor15a). FAD7 encodes for omega-3-fatty acid desaturase and was used to resist cold-stress. IPT encodes the cytokinin-pathway enzyme isopentenyl transferase and was used to delay senescence. Independent FAD7 and IPT lines were crossed to produce double transgenic seed. Seedlings from single transgenic (cor15a-IPT or cor15a-FAD7) lines, double transgenic lines, and the wild-type were exposed to prolonged cold, dark conditions. After 3 months in the dark at 2 °C, survival of independent double transgenic N. tabacum lines ranged up to 80% to 90%. However only 40% of FAD7 seedlings survived, 10% of IPT seedlings survived, and no wild-type plants survived. Double transgenic N. alata seedlings average 90% survival under similar conditions and RT-PCR revealed expression of both the IPT and FAD7 genes. Omega-3-FAD enzyme activity increases desaturation in chloroplast membrane fatty acids. When exposed to prolonged cold, the molecular fraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:3 and 16:3) in leaves of wild-type N. alata decreased while monounsaturated (16:1 and 18:1) and saturated fatty acid species (16:0 and 18:0) increased dramatically. In double transgenic N. alata lines exposed to prolonged cold, the molecular fraction of 18:3 and 16:3 increased, while the 16:0 and 18:0 species decreased dramatically compared to nonchilled double transgenic plants.

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Brian Lawrence and Juan Carlos Melgar

shelf life ( Clark and Finn, 2008 ). For instance, many growers harvest early in the morning to minimize field heat and reduce the time before fruit is placed in cold storage. Some of the most common and potentially devaluing defects in blackberry fruit

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Federica Galli, Douglas D. Archbold, and Kirk W. Pomper

., 2004 ; Leja et al., 2003 ; Nguyen et al., 2003 ). Crude extracts of ripe pawpaw fruit pulp have been reported to display PPO activity ( Fang et al., 2007 ); however, there are no studies examining whether PPO activity changes during cold storage of

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Rodney B. Jones and Janyce K. Truett

Postharvest treatments designed to enhance the vase life of cut Gloriosa rothschildiana flowers were tested. Vase life was significantly extended by the germicides 8-HQC (250 mg·liter-1), DICA (50 mg·liter-1), and Physan-20 (50 mg·liter-1). Germicides acted primarily by improving solution uptake. Sucrose, either as a continuous treatment (of 2% or 5% w/v), or as a 24-hour pulse (20%), significantly enhanced vase life, primarily by enhancing the development of immature buds and delaying senescence in open flowers. Flowers stored at 1C developed signs of chilling injury within 3 days, but chilling symptoms were not displayed in stems stored at 10C for 10 days. Flowers were not affected when exposed to 50 μl ethylene/liter for 24 hours. Transport and short-term storage in sealed, air-filled bags to protect the flowers from physical damage resulted in some atmosphere modification within the bags. Fungal growth occurred when flowers were kept in air-tilled bags for more than 6 days, resulting in a reduction in vase life. Chemical names used: 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC); sodium dichloroisocyanuric acid (DICA); n-alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (Phyrsan-20).

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Jo-Feng An and Robert E. Paull

The temperature and ethylene response of ripening papaya fruit (Carica papaya L. cv. Sunset) was determined with and without 14 days of storage at 10C. Temperatures at or higher than 30C adversely affected the quality of the ripe papaya. Papayas held at 32.5C for 10 days failed to ripen normally, as evidenced by poor color development, abnormal softening, surface pitting, and an occasional off-flavor. Skin yellowing, fruit softening, and flesh color of papayas exhibited a quadratic response to ripening time within the temperature range of 22.5 to 27.5C. Flesh color development of nonstored fruit did not change significantly during the first 6 days at ripening temperatures, then rapidly increased. Fruit stored for 14 days at 10C exhibited faster ripening rates (e.g., degreening and softening and no delay in flesh color development) than nonstored fruit when removed to other ripening temperatures (17.5 to 32.5 C). Problems of weight loss and development of external abnormalities were more significant at temperatures higher than 27.5C. The optimal temperature range was found to be between 22.5 and 27.5C, with fruit taking 10 to 18 days to reach full skin yellowing from color break, whether or not fruit was stored at 10C. Exogenously applied ethylene (=100 μl·liter-1) stimulated the rate of fruit ripening, as measured by more uniform skin yellowing and rate of flesh softening whether or not the fruit were stored for 14 days at 10C. Ethylene did not ripen immature papayas completely in terms of skin and flesh color development. The outer portion of the flesh of ethylene-treated fruit had a faster rate of ripening, as indicated by carotenoid development and softening rate, while the same area of the flesh was still pale white in nonethylene-treated fruit. Ethylene reduced the coefficient of variation for skin color, softening rate, and flesh color development in treated fruit. Ethylene increased the rate of skin degreening and hastened the rate of carotenoid development and softening in the outer mesocarp, while having little effect on the inner mesocarp.

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Liu Yang, Zhongkui Xie, Zhijiang Wu, Yajun Wang, Zhihong Guo, Yubao Zhang, and Ruoyu Wang

( Macháčková et al., 1998 ). In the present study, our objective was to determine the effects of exogenous hormone ABA or its biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone application of cold storage before planting on flower quality and the response of endogenous hormones

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Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Sae Takahashi, and Kazuyuki Abe

could be determined shortly after harvest. However, the differences among cultivars regarding the degradation of fruit quality in shelf life conditions were not assumed to be the same as those in cold storage, which is the typical method of storage

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Celia M. Cantín, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Kevin R. Day

occurring near the plum pit. Controlled atmosphere (CA) or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and RH management are used as supplements to fruit cold storage to limit water loss, delay ripening, and suppress diseases ( Beaudry, 1999 ; Smith et al., 1987