Exposure of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to salinity stress either before or after inoculation with Phytophthora parasitica increased root and crown rot severity relative to nonstressed controls. The synergy between salinity and P. parasitic was most pronounced on young (prebloom) plants and least pronounced on older (postbloom) plants. Salt stressed, inoculated plants had significantly reduced top weight, significantly more root necrosis, greater incidence of crown necrosis, and significantly greater mortality. Increased disease severity occurred even though experiments showed salinity reduced zoospore release arid motility of P. parasitic, suggesting that even low inoculum levels can result in severe root rot on young tomato plants in saline soils.
T.J. Swiecki and J.D. MacDonald
Kim E. Tripp, William K. Kroen, Mary M. Peet, and Daniel H. Willits
Eight tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars were grown for 16 weeks in greenhouses enriched for an average of 8.1 hours daily to 1000 μl CO /liter of air or in greenhouses maintained at ambient CO. Carbon dioxide enrichment significantly decreased the mean number of greenhouse whiteflies [Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westward), Homoptera: Aleyrodidae] as measured by counts from commercial yellow sticky traps. The number of whiteflies present was negatively correlated with both seasonal foliar C: N ratio and percent C but positively correlated with percent N in the foliage. Thus, CO enrichment apparently alters plant composition in such a way as to reduce significantly the population growth of greenhouse whiteflies.
A. Liptay and N. Zariffa
Priming tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) seeds in aerated -0.5 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhanced the emergence rate and the extent and percentage of embryo radicles protruding partially or completely through the seed endosperm. The radicles' growth, however, was arrested at the seedcoat. The time course of radicle protrusion through the endosperm of seeds in PEG for the first 24 hours paralleled that of seeds germinating in aerated water; however, radicle protrusion continued through the seedcoats of seeds germinating in water. The radicle of the high-vigor PI-341988 tomato line protruded more rapidly through the endosperm than that of the low-vigor ST-24 line.
Bernard A. L. Nicoulaud and Arnold J. Bloom
Concentrations of up to 1.0 μm NiCl2 in a nutrient solution improved growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `T-5') seedlings that received foliar urea as their sole nitrogen source. Nickel in the nutrient solution decreased the amount of urea present in the shoots and increased the amount in the roots, although it had no significant effect upon leaf urease activity. These results indicate that a) the presence of nickel in the nutrient solution improves growth of plants receiving foliar urea and b) the effect of nickel was related more to increased urea translocation from shoot to root than to enhanced leaf urease activity.
Georges T. Dodds and Pamela M. Ludford
Chilling-injury symptoms on the surface of eight cultivars or lines of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit were mapped with respect to subtending locules. Mature-green (MG) fruit were chilled at SC for 10 to 25 days and then ripened to red ripe at 20C. Mature-green fruit showed a major portion of injury over subtending locules and on the stem end. The location of injury corresponded with the regions that were the last to ripen. The injuries of immature-green (IG) fruit treated in a similar manner were different from those of MG fruit both in appearance and in distribution.
Ahmed El Ghaouth, Rathy Ponnampalam, François Castaigne, and Joseph Arul
The effect of chitosan on respiration, ethylene production, and quality attributes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit stored at 20C was investigated. Coating the fruit with chitosan solutions reduced the respiration rate and ethylene production, with greater effect at 2% than 1% chitosan. Coating increased the internal CO, and decreased the internal O2 levels of the tomatoes. Chitosan-coated tomatoes were firmer, higher in titratable acidity, less decayed, and exhibited less red pigmentation than the control fruit at the end of storage. Chemical name used: 2-amino-2- deoxy-p-D)-glucan (chitosan).
Wade J. Sperry, Jeanine M. Davis, and Douglas C. Sanders
Two crack-resistant and two crack-susceptible fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars were evaluated at varied soil moisture levels for physiological fruit defects and yield. Cultural practices recommended for staked-tomato production in North Carolina with raised beds, black polyethylene mulch, and drip irrigation were used. Soil moisture levels of less than −15.0, −30 to −40, and greater than −70 kPa were maintained and monitored using daily tensiometer readings. Soil moisture level had no effect on fruit cracking, blossom-end rot, zippers, or yield. However, there-were large differences among cultivars for fruit defects and total and marketable yields.
J.W. Scott, S.M. Olson, H.H. Bryan, J.A. Bartz, D.N. Maynard, and P.J. Stoffella
`Solar Fire' is a heat-tolerant hybrid tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. formerly Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with resistance to all three races of Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Sacc. Snyder & Hansen. It has superior fruit-setting ability in comparison with most existing cultivars under high temperatures (>32 °C day/>21 °C night), and the fruit crack less under the rainy field conditions often present in the early fall Florida production season. Fla. 7776 is the pollen parent in `Solar Fire', providing much of the heat tolerance in this hybrid. It has large fruit-providing breeders with a parent to produce heat-tolerant hybrids with two heat-tolerant parents.
Elizabeth A. Baldwin and Russell Pressey
Exopolygalacturonase (exo-PG) (EC 22.214.171.124) was investigated for ability to induce ethylene production in green cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The fruit were vacuum-infiltrated with various levels of exo-PG from green tomato fruit, squash flower, or oak pollen and compared to boiled enzyme or salt controls for ethylene production. In all cases, fruit treated with active enzymes produced significantly higher levels of ethylene than did control fruit. The ethylene response was evident 2 hours after treatment and was transient in nature, returning to basal levels by 22 hours. The amount of ethylene produced did not appear to be influenced by the source of exo-PG.
Lingxia Zhao, Chengxiang Qiu, Jingfu Li, Yourong Chai, Guoyin Kai, Zhugang Li, Xiaofen Sun, and K.X. Tang
Solanum lycopersicoides is a valuable genetic resource for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genetic improvement. However, there are few reports on its agronomic traits such as disease resistance and cold tolerance. In this paper, the resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and leaf mold (Cladosporium fulvum Cooke) and cold tolerance of five lines of S. lycopersicoides were studied through investigation of disease inoculation and electrolyte leakage analysis. The results showed that S. lycopersicoides was highly resistant or immune to CMV and leaf mold and more tolerant to low temperature than L. esculentum. This study is helpful for the genetic improvement of tomato by using S. lycopersicoides as breeding materials.