Austral. J. Grape Wine Res. 11 242 295 Bell, S.-J. Robson, A. 1999 Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth, canopy density, and yield of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 50 351 358 Bergmeyer, H.U. Beutler, H.-O. 1990
Danijela Janjanin, Marko Karoglan, Mirjana Herak Ćustić, Marijan Bubola, Mirela Osrečak, and Igor Palčić
Maurus V. Brown, David C. Ferree, David M. Scurlock, and Gene Sigel
In the Spring and Summer 1997, severe die back of `Pinot Gris' and `Chambourcin' grape (Vitis vinifera) vines was observed by aerial surveillance in a commercial vineyard adjacent to Lake Erie. Vines grown over the tile lines grew well during 1997-99 following the excessively wet year of 1996. This was not the case for vines that were located betweentile lines. It was postulated that by digging and refilling the trench to insert the tile that either soil compaction or soil pH had been altered and could be responsible for the vine performance. Measurements indicated that these factors were not altered enough to explain the growth differences between vines growing over tile lines and those vines growing between tile lines. It appears that soil oxygen was improved by tiling and likely made the difference in cane dieback during the excessively wet year of 1996. By 1999, vines over tile and between tile had similar yields, and the pattern was no longer visible from the air. This study showed that heavy clay soils with naturally poor internal drainage caused cane dieback and poor growth of vines, especially in very wet years. Thus, it appears prudent on soils of this type, tile drainage is beneficial and spacing of lateral tile lines needs to be closer than 40 ft (12 m) in plateau silt loam soils to adequately protect vines from wet years.
Yuru Chang, Lorenzo Rossi, Lincoln Zotarelli, Bin Gao, and Ali Sarkhosh
The Muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia L., Vitaceae) is the predominant grape cultivar commonly grown in the southeastern United States, with current markets existing for juice, wine, and fresh fruit ( Duarte Alonso and O’Neill, 2012 ). Most
Peter C. Andersen, Brent V. Brodbeck, and Russell F. Mizell III
Diurnal variations in the chemical composition of xylem fluid have been established for many plant species exhibiting positive root pressure; similar patterns have not been well documented in transpiring plants. Diurnal changes in plant water status and xylem fluid chemistry were investigated for `Flordaking' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], `Suwannee' grape (Vitis hybrid), and `Flordahome' pear (Pyrus communis L.). Xylem tension was maximum at 1200 or 1600 hr and declined to <0.5 MPa before dawn. Xylem fluid osmolarity ranged from 10 to 27 mm and was not correlated with diurnal patterns of xylem tension. The combined concentration of amino acids and organic acids accounted for up to 70%, 45%, 55%, and 23% of total osmolarity for irrigated P. persica, nonirrigated P. persica, Vitis, and P. communis, respectively. The concentration of total organic compounds in xylem fluid was numerically greatest at 0800 or 0900 hr. For irrigated P. persica the osmolarity of xylem fluid was reduced by 45% from 0800 to 1200 hr, 1 h after irrigation, compared to only a 12% reduction from 0800 to 1200 hr for nonirrigated trees. Asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid were mainly responsible for diurnal changes in the concentration of total amino acids and organic N for P. persica; the diurnal variation in organic N for Vitis was due to glutamine. Arginine, rather than the amides, was the primary source of organic N in xylem fluid of P. communis, and there was no consistent diurnal change in the concentration of amino acids or organic N. The predominant organic acids in all species examined were citric and malic acids. No consistent diurnal trend occurred in the concentration of organic acids or sugars in xylem fluid.
Yan Xu and Yuejin Wang
Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) constitute a rapid and informative strategy for studying gene-expression profiles of specific stages of annual and perennial plant species. Compared with annual plants, the NCBI database has very little sequence information from perennial plant species. To date, only ∼145 ESTs of Vitis pseudoreticulata W.T. Wang have been deposited in databases. This is insufficient to understand the biology and development of this species. In this report, a cDNA library constructed from young leaf inoculated with powdery mildew pathogen [Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr.] of Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata. Leaf was harvested at various times after inoculation for total RNA extraction, which was used to generate ESTs. In our study, 107 cDNA clones were sequenced either from 5' or 3' end of the cDNAs. Among them, 60 unigenes (56%) were functionally characterized by the BLASTX matches to known function proteins, and 20 unigenes (18.6 %) matched significantly with those having unknown function in the public databases. The remaining 27 unigenes (25.2%) failed to show significant homology to any proteins in the public databases, suggesting that they represent novel sequences. Some functional genes identified from the cDNA library to be potentially associated with plant defence-related responses are discussed.
R. Paul Schreiner, Carolyn F. Scagel, and John Baham
The nutrient uptake and distribution patterns for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were determined in mature (23 to 24 year old), field-grown, rainfed grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. `Pinot noir') growing in a red hill soil in Oregon in 2001 and 2002. Biomass, nutrient concentrations, and nutrient contents of all plant organs, including roots, were determined on 14 sampling dates over 2 years. There was no seasonal change in the standing biomass of primary roots (fine feeder roots), small woody (<4 mm diameter) or large woody (>4 mm diameter) roots. Trunk biomass also did not change during the 2 years, but all other vine organs showed significant seasonal changes in biomass. The rate of N uptake was greatest at bloom, when remobilization from reserves was also high. Nitrogen was also taken up after leaf fall in 2001, but not in 2002, when an early frost occurred before soil moisture recovery by fall rains. Uptake of N, K, and Ca from soil was similar between years, even though canopy demand for N and K was greater in 2002 (significantly larger crop). Phosphorus uptake from soil was lower in 2002 than in 2001, which was most likely due to the drier conditions in 2002. A greater quantity of canopy N, K, and especially P was supplied from stored reserves in the drier 2002 growing season. About 50% of canopy requirements for N and P were remobilized from reserves in the trunk and roots by the time of fruit maturity in 2002. Only 15% of canopy K and <5% of canopy Ca or Mg came from stored reserves in 2002. Our findings indicate that nonirrigated grapevines grown in Oregon acquire nutrients from soil earlier in the growing season and have a greater reliance on stored reserves of N and P than reported in previous studies from other growing regions. Replenishment of nutrient reserves occurred to large extent during the postharvest period. Rainfed vineyards in Oregon may require different nutrient management practices than irrigated vineyards, since low soil moisture may limit summer uptake of P.
Shiow Wang, Ren-tian Feng, Linda Bowman, Ross Penhallegon, and Min Ding
The effects of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) extracts on activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were evaluated. Pretreatment of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells with lingonberry extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of AP-1 and NF-κB induced by either 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB) light. Lingonberry extracts blocked UVB-induced phosphorylation of MAPK family members ERK1, ERK2, and p38, but not JNK. Lingonberry extracts also prevented TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2. Results of soft agar assays indicated that lingonberry extracts suppressed TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+
cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lingonberry extracts also induced the apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-independent manner. These results suggest that ERK1 and ERK2 may be inhibited by lingonberries, which results in suppression of AP-1 and neoplastic transformation in JB6 P+ cells and causes cancer cell death by an apoptotic mechanism in human leukemia HL-60 cells.
Sanliang Gu, Susanne Howard, and Martin K. Walsh
The effects of shoot positioning, leaf removal, cluster shading, and curtain orientation on fruit composition and primary bud cold hardiness were investigated in mature `Norton/Cynthiana' grapevines (Vitis aestivalis) trained to Geneva double curtain (GDC) trellis system. For four years (1995–1998) juice soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, and pH were not affected shoot positioning. Cluster shading, curtain orientation, and leaf removal affected fruit composition at harvest. Fruit from the south-facing curtain of the GDC trellis system had higher juice soluble solid content, pH, and skin pigmentation than fruit from the north-facing curtain. Cluster shading decreased skin pigmentation while cluster shading at the highest level only (95%) increased pH and decreased total titratable acidity. Leaf removal, which increases light exposure of the fruit, increased juice pH in the 1997 experiment only. Juice potassium level was decreased by shoot positioning, but not cluster shading or curtain orientation. Cold hardiness of primary buds was affected by these treatments early in the winter, but the differences in primary bud cold hardiness among the treatments diminished toward the end of the dormant season.
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel, Evangelos D. Leonardos, John T.A. Proctor, K. Helen Fisher, and J. Alan Sullivan
Potted `Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) with either two or three shoots were grown in a greenhouse for one month and then transferred to a phytotron room, where either one or two shoots were shaded. Twenty-four days after transfer, leaves at the fifth node of either the light-adapted or shade-adapted shoot were exposed to a 2-hour pulse of 14CO2. Both light environment and number of shade shoots on the vine had a significant effect on photosynthate partitioning within the plant following a 22-hour chase. Leaves fed with 14CO2 on a light-adapted shoot translocated 26.1% and 12.7% more radioactivity to the roots and trunk, respectively, than leaves from shade-adapted shoots. Photosynthates were exported from light-adapted leaves to shade-adapted shoots (1.3% of total 14C in plant). The number of shaded shoots and the light environment of the fed leaf had a large effect on partitioning of photosynthates among ethanol-insoluble, water-soluble, and chloroform-soluble fractions within the leaf. Recovered 14C in the water-soluble fraction of the fed leaf appeared to be affected more by number of shoots than by light environment of the fed leaf. The data suggest that there is a sink effect on initial carbon partitioning patterns in grapevine leaves. Sink strength may have a greater role than light environment. A large proportion of interior leaves versus exterior leaves may be costly with respect to the carbohydrate budget of a vine.
Handan Büyükdemirci and Paul E. Read
Axillary buds of `Valiant' grapevine (Vitis spp.) grown in vitro were transferred onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different cytokinin and auxin combinations and concentrations. It was found that culture medium caused statistically important differences in number of nodes, number of fully expanded leaves, number of multiple shoots, number of roots, and length of shoots. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg BA/liter in combination with 0.01 mg NAA/L was found to be the best medium for shoot growth and callus production. MS medium supplemented with the combination of 0.5 mg BA/L and 0.01 mg NAA/L was the best medium for explant rooting. The medium containing BA and NAA encouraged better shoot growth than those containing BA alone. When the concentration of BA in the medium was increased, multiple shoot proliferation and teratological structures of explants increased, but the number of small leaves and length of internode decreased. Axillary bud culture led to better shoot growth than was found for shoot apex culture. The presence of leaves positively affected shoot growth from axillary buds. Also placing the axillary buds horizontally onto the medium gave better shoot proliferation and growth than placing them vertically.