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Yanrong Lv, Ibrahim I. Tahir, and Marie E. Olsson

in recent years. Phytochemical concentration in melons, peppers, and tomatoes has been increased, including levels of vitamin C, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and flavonoids ( Crosby et al., 2007 ; Davuluri et al., 2005 ). Recent results from an

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Deron Caplan, Mike Dixon, and Youbin Zheng

spearmint plants under water stress Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 106 243 252 Demmig-Adams, B. 1990 Carotenoids and photoprotection in plants: A role for the xanthophyll zeaxanthin Biochim. Biophys. Acta Bioenerg. 1020 1 24 Dixon, M.A. Tyree, M.T. 1984 A new stem

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Stephanie Rossi and Bingru Huang

, and heat stress ( Havaux et al., 1996 ; Kim et al., 2012 ; Li et al., 2020 ; Ramel et al., 2012 ; Shawon et al., 2018 ; Zhang et al., 2021 ). In heat-treated potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) leaves, a greater endogenous content of zeaxanthin (a

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Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan, and Mustafa Kenan Gecer

-carotene, γ-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein ( Fraser and Bramley, 2004 ). β-carotene level significantly varies among varieties and among different regions within the same variety ( Erdoğan and Erdemoğlu, 2011 ; Munzuroglu et al., 2003 ). Research on other

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Kui Lin, Zhi Huang, and Yong Xu

. Lazaro, M. 2013 Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for miniature hydroponic lettuce Opt. Photonics J. 03 74 77 Kopsell, D.A. Kopsell, D.E. 2008 Genetic and environmental factors affecting plant lutein/zeaxanthin Agro Food Ind. Hi-Tech 19 44 46 Kowallik, W. 1982

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David A. Felicetti and Larry E. Schrader

converted to xanthophylls. One possible explanation for this is the deactivation of carotenoid b-ring hydroxylase, which is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of β-carotene to zeaxanthin. The deactivation of this enzyme would prohibit the formation of

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Jollanda Effendy, Don R. La Bonte, and Niranjan Baisakh

highest expression of ELIP3 at 12 h (7.8-fold) is likely the result of the desiccation after skinning of the root and was probably associated with the carotenoid pigment zeaxanthin, thereby protecting the tissues against further damage. A cDNA (IbSIn61b

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Shi-Lin Tian, Li Li, Yue-Qin Tian, S.N.M. Shah, and Zhen-Hui Gong

lycopene to create α-carotene and β-carotene. β-carotene hydroxylase (Crtz) converts β-carotene to β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and antheraxanthin. Ccs converts antheraxanthin into capsanthin ( Guzman et al., 2010 ). These biosynthetic enzymes are directly

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Cristián Vela-Hinojosa, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, José A. Mendoza-Espinoza, Juan M. Villa-Hernández, Ricardo Lobato-Ortíz, Juan E. Rodríguez-Pérez, and Laura J. Pérez-Flores

. Celik, S.E. Apak, R.A. 2011 Comprehensive review of CUPRAC methodology Anal. Methods 3 2439 2453 10.1039/c1ay05320e Perry, A. Rasmussen, H. Johnson, E.J. 2009 Xanthophyll (lutein, zeaxanthin) content in fruits, vegetables and corn and egg products J

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Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Kevin Crosby, David Byrne, and Kendal Hirschi

levels than commercial cultivars: TAM Mild Habanero and Dulcito Jalapeño with enhanced beta-carotene and zeaxanthin, respectively ( Crosby et al., 2005a , 2007 ). Currently, Crosby is developing pepper lines with elevated flavonoid levels. Some Texas A