The effect of water stress imposed at three dates in late summer and early fall on cold hardiness was examined in Rhododendron L. `Coral Bell', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Ruffle'. The persistence of the water stress-induced cold hardiness was also examined following plant recovery from the stress. Container-grown plants were exposed to three weeks of reduced water supply starting 8 Aug., 29 Aug., or 19 Sept., while control plants were well watered. Cold hardiness of leaves, lower, middle, and upper stems was evaluated with laboratory freeze tests. Reduced water supply independent of time initiated increased cold hardiness by 1 to 4C in the majority of the tested plant parts in the three cultivars. Cold hardiness of all plant parts tested strongly depended on the current water status of the plants as indicated by the stem water potential. In most cases, 3 weeks after rewatering, the cold hardiness of previously water stressed plants did not differ from that of nonstressed plants.
Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom
Baolin Zhang and Douglas D. Archbold
Plants of F. chiloensis cv. BSP14 (FC) and F. virginiana cv. NCC85-13V (FV) were stressed until wilting, then watered for 2 days prior to measurement. Diurnal measurements of leaf conductance and water relations were conducted. Leaf conductance of stressed FC plants was generally lower, than that of controls at most times, but there wee no difference between the two in FV. Leaf conductance and transpiration rates had not fully recovered to pre-stress levels within this recovery period, Leaf wafer potential declined from predawn to midday, more in stressed than control plants of both species. Leaf osmotic potential averaged 0.4 and 0.2 MPa lower in stressed than control FC and FV plants, respectively, Greater differences occurred at midday than predawn. Leaf pressure potential of stressed plants was higher predawn than midday, 1.4 vs. 0.7 MPa, in FC; it was not different for FV at most times. The difference in water relations between these two species may be explained by a greater residual effect from the osmotic adjustment in FC es compared to FV that occurred during prior water deficit stress.
Alireza Talaie*, Vali Rabiei, and Ali Ebadi
Grapevine under arid and semi-arid are subjected to low soil water availability, accompanied by high levels of temperature and severe transpiration in the summer period. In spite of their deep root system, severe water stress may occur during that period. Therefore, study of morphological and physiological responses of grapevine cultivars to water stress, especially during the different phenological stages, are necessary. The effect of water deficit stress on morphological and physiological responses of four Iranian grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Bidaneh Sephid, Yaghooti Shiraz, Khoshnav, and Siaveh) were studied. This investigation was conducted as a factorial experiment in a complete randomized block design with four replications. In this study, 1-year-old own rooted vines were planted outdoor in plastic bags. Water stress was begun 115 days after bud break and contained for 2 months. Some vegetative and biochemical characters of leaves were evaluated; photosynthesis and gas exchange was measured. The results of analysis of variance indicated that water deficit stress decreased total dry weight, root dry weight, leaf area, non soluble carbohydrate concentration, and chlorophyll content. The reduction of leaf area in `Yaghooti Shiraz' and total dry weight and root dry weight in `Bidaneh Sephid' were higher than two other cultivars. Under water deficit stress condition, the soluble carbohydrate concentration and proline content in grapevine cultivars increased. Net photosynthesis and gas exchange rate were markedly reduced in water deficit stressed vines.
Ursula K. Schuch, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Mike A. Nagao
Abbreviation: WP, water potential. 1 Current address: Dept. of Botany and Plant Sciences, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0214. Oregon” Agricultural Experiment Station Technical paper no. 9611. This research was supported in part by the U
R. Scott Johnson, Claude J. Phene, and Dale Handley
38 Colloquium 1 (Abstr. 700–705) Water Management and Water Relations of Horticultural Crops
Wansang Lim, Kenneth W. Mudge, and Jin Wook Lee
We determined the effect of moderate water stress on the growth of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium), and on concentrations of six major ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd). Two-year-old “rootlets” (dormant rhizome and storage root) were cultivated in pots, in a cool greenhouse (18.3 ± 2 °C). Pots were watered either every 5 days (control) or every 10 days (stress), repeatedly for 8 days. Soil volumetric water content was measured during the last 10 days of the experiment for both treatments. Leaf water potential, measured on the last day of the experiment, was -0.43 MPa for the control and -0.83 MPa for the stress treatment. Drought stress did not affect above-ground shoot or root dry weight. Initial rootlet fresh weight (covariate) had a significant effect on the concentration of ginsenosides Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Drought stress increased the concentration of ginsenosides Re, Rb1, and total ginsenoside concentration.
D. J. Garrot Jr., M. W. Kilby, and R. D. Gibson
Arizona is currently experiencing an explosion in the commercial cultivation and production of table grapes. Decreasing water supplies, increasing water cost, and recent groundwater legislation are forcing Arizona growers to be more water efficient if they are to remain competitive with other markets. Research was conducted to determine the effect of water stress on vine growth and berry ripening. “Flame Seedless” table grapes (4th leaf) were subjected to increasing water stress levels based upon infrared canopy temperatures and the crop water stress index (CWSI). A lower water stress level (CWSI = 0.18 units at irrigation) promoted earlier berry sizing, increased berry weight, and increased cluster weight over drier treatments. Significantly higher growth (P= 0.01), based on pruning weights, also was attained at the lower water stress level. However, highest production (grade 1 and 2 packed boxes) was attained when irrigations were scheduled at 0.30 CWSI units. Total applied water to maintain the wet, medium, and dry treatments was 1136 mm (CWSI = 0.18), 775 mm (CWSI = 0.30), and 669 mm (CWSI = 0.33), respectively.
A. Naor, I. Klein, H. Hupert, Y. Grinblat, M. Peres, and A. Kaufman
The interactions between irrigation and crop level with respect to fruit size distribution and soil and stem water potentials were investigated in a nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. `Fairlane') orchard located in a semiarid zone. Irrigation treatments during stage III of fruit growth ranged from 0.62 to 1.29 of potential evapotranspiration (ETp). Fruit were hand thinned to a wide range of fruit levels (200 to 1200 fruit/tree in the 555-tree/ha orchard). Total yield did not increase with increasing irrigation rate above 0.92 ETp in 1996 and maximum yield was found at 1.06 ETp in 1997. Fruit size distribution was shifted towards larger fruit with increasing irrigation level and with decreasing crop level. The two highest irrigation treatments had similar midday stem water potentials. Our findings indicate that highest yields and highest water use efficiency (yield/water consumption) are not always related to minimum water stress. Total yield and large fruit yield were highly and better correlated with midday stem water potential than with soil water potential. This confirms other reports that midday stem water potential is an accurate indicator of tree water stress and may have utility in irrigation scheduling.
Baolin Zhang and Douglas D. Archbold
Abbreviations: FC, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch. `BSP14'; FV, Fragaria virginiana (L.) Duch. `NCC85-13V'; RWC, relative water content; Ψ water potential; Ψ P , turgor potential; Ψ p osmotic potential; Ψπ 100 , osmotic potential at full turgor
Stan D. Wullschleger and Derrick M. Oosterhuis
Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops-`Blue Lake' bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), `Detroit Dark Red' beet (Beta vulgaris L.), `Burgundy' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (Moench), `Little Marvel' pea (Pisum sativum L.), `California Wonder' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), `New Zealand' spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and `Beefsteak' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)–to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomata1 conductance among the species studied, crop-specific differences were observed in leaf and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea, and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.