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Said Ennahli and Sorkel Kadir

Variability due to soil types, topography, and climate within a vineyard influences grapevine physiological parameters and fruit quality. Technical feasibility of using precision Geographic Information System (GIS) as a viticulture tool to improve vineyard management and increase wine quality will be investigated. The study was conducted in an experimental vineyard where rows consist of plots with 24 cultivars and selections randomly planted and managed similarly. Monitored vineyard parameters collected by Global Positioning System (GPS) location include soil characteristics, soil moisture, vine growth, crop load, and fruit characteristics. Geospatial maps are used to differentiate yield between the cultivars and selections as high, medium, or low. Production was determined from each variety/selection within the vineyard. Yield parameters were number of clusters, cluster weight, and weight of 50 berries; fruit composition (such as pH), titratable acidity, soluble solids concentration, and anthocyanins were measured. Maps for each factor will be derived via GIS tools and spatial analysis will be conducted to assess which spatial variability factor has more effect on grapevine physiology, yield, and fruit quality. This type of analysis can be used by grape growers to achieve specific wine characteristics in a large or small vineyard by controlling all sources of variability, leading to the ability to perform precision viticulture in the future, with low cost.

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R. Paul Schreiner and Carolyn F. Scagel

noir’ Pommard (FPS 91) collected from the Oregon State University, Woodhall Research Vineyard (OSU-WRV) located near Alpine, OR. Cuttings were rooted in sterile vermiculite:perlite, grown for 6–7 weeks in a mist chamber with bottom heat, and then

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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Stephen J. Vasquez, and S. Kaan Kurtural

, 2008 ). In Italy and some other countries, plastic sheets may be used as a form of protected cultivation, in which the plastic forms a roof and walls around the vineyard ( Novello and de Palma, 2008 ; Novello et al., 2000 ). Such systems may be

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Bhaskar R. Bondada

, 2000 ). Because of its predilection for damaging broad-leaved plants, woody perennials in orchards and vineyards worldwide are not only kept free of 2,4-D, but also avoided in grape production except for generating embryos and plantlets from tissue

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Luiz A. Biasi and Patrick J. Conner

hermaphrodite ( Dearing, 1917 ). Additionally, hermaphroditic and staminate flower clusters are much larger than female clusters ( Detjen, 1917 ). Before the 1940s, all fruiting muscadines were female and vineyards would typically contain female vines with

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Janine Hasey, K. Uriu, and J. Pearson

Chloride and boron toxicity symptoms and tissue concentrations were characterized and distinguished in kiwifruit. Dormant cane, bud, emerging leaves, blade and petiole samples were taken from February through October 1989 from three vineyards - a high chloride, a high boron and a low boron, low chloride control. Chloride toxicity symptoms started showing in early summer on basal leaves. By late summer, necrosis symptoms were on mid-shoot and leaves near the shoot terminal. In boron toxicity, interveinal chlorotic areas appeared first followed by marginal necrosis. Symptoms were seen on basal leaves in early spring, progressively affecting upper leaves by harvest. The high chloride vineyard accumulated chloride from early spring with the petiole concentrating more chloride than the blade. In the high boron vineyard, boron increased greatly in the blade but not in the petiole. Another sampling procedure other than mid-season leaf samples could be emerging leaves for detecting high chloride and dormant cane tips, buds or emerging leaves for high boron.

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R.K. Striegler and D.R. Wineman

Selected rootstocks were evaluated for four seasons in a Zinfandel vineyard located in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. The vineyard was drip-irrigated and vineyard spacing was 2.1m × 3.3m (vine × row). A two-wire vertical trellis system was used and row orientation was east to west. Vines were trained to a bilateral cordon and spur-pruned. Rootstocks included in the study were: AxR #1, Freedom, Harmony, Kober 5BB, and Teleki 5C. Vines grafted on AxR #1 rootstock were considered to be the control treatment.

A randomized complete block experimental design was used. There were six blocks and plots consisted of five vines. Data collected included yield, components of yield, fruit composition, bloom petiole nutrient content, shoot number, and pruning weight.

After the initial season, yields were consistently highest for vines grafted on Freedom rootstock, with yields only slightly lower on AxR #1 rootstock. Significantly lower yields were recorded for vines grafted on Kober 5BB and Teleki 5C. Rootstock did not have a consistent effect on fruit composition. Shoots/vine and shoots/meter of canopy were not significantly effected by rootstock. Dormant pruning weight was highest for Freedom and lowest for Kober 5BB.

These results suggest that rootstock selection can influence vineyard productivity in the northern San Joaquin Valley. Continued research is needed to determine long term effects of the rootstocks used in this study.

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Thomas J. Monaco and Wayne Mitchem

Tree fruit researchers and extension specialists from North Carolina (NC), South Carolina (SC), and Georgia (GA) have been collaborating informally for many years. There has been a desire to formalize some of these arrangements, and in late 1998 planning was intiated to develop an extension specialist position to cover orchard and vineyard floor management in NC, SC, and GA. Wayne Mitchem, who had this responsibility for NC as well as serving as the coordinator for the regional IR-4 field research center at NCSU, presented us with the opportunity to create a three-quarters time extension specialist position dealing solely with the management of weeds in tree fruits and vineyards on a regional basis. The proposal was presented to Extension Directors from NC, SC, and GA in Oct. 1998, and over the following 6 months a memorandum of understanding was developed among the three states to establish the position. The position is located in NC at the Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Fletcher, and each of the states agreed to share equally in funding the salary. None of the three states had this expertise in their faculty and if the position were not created, we would have had a void in this important aspect of orchard and vineyard maintenance. In addition to weed manangement, the position will have responsibilty for conducting residue trials for the IR-4 program as it pertains to the labeling of minor use pesticides for tree fruits and vineyards.

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George Ray McEachern

I. Chennin Blanc 107-cm bilateral cordon spaced 3.6 × 2.4 m, 1119 vines/ha, 14 spurs with 32 buds/vine. Yields were 8.8 t·ha-1 in the third leaf; 9.7 in the fourth, and 12.8 the 5th year, 1990, at the Jane Terrell Vineyard, Navasota, Tex. II. Cabernet Sauvignon with a two-trunk 122 cm bilateral cordon spaced 3.3 × 1.2 m, 2445 vines/ha with 48 buds/vine. Yields were 9.7 t·ha-1 for 1994 through 1997 at the mechanically harvested Newson Vineyard, Plains, Tex. III. Le Noir with a 91-cm trunk and a two-cane canopy; spaced 3 × 2.1 m, 1536 vines/ha, with 14 buds/vine. Yields were 13.3 t·ha-1 in 1996 and 11.2 in 1997 at Messina Hoff Vineyard, Bryan, Tex. IV. Merlot/110R with a 45° slanting cordon, 30 cm at south to 152 cm at north, spaced 1.5 × 1.5 m, 4308 vines/ha with 10 spurs and 20 buds/vine. Yield of 10.8 t·ha-1 in the third leaf, 1997, at Wolf Vineyard, Valley View, Tex. Four very different canopy systems were successful; the ideal system is yet to be determined.

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Jorge O'Ryan and Monica Ozores-Hampton

The Chilean organic wine industry has comparative advantages with Europe and the United States because of its ideal environmental conditions, resulting in low presence of pests and diseases and lower production cost. Additionally, the wine production process is one of the strictest in the world, so the transformation from conventional to organic wine production can be achieved economically. A survey was conducted of 32 Chilean organic vineyards during 2004. The survey included 18 questions about total surface area, certification, varieties, final market, etc. The survey covered 95% of the land under organic wine production, with a total of 1892 ha, of which 1088 ha have organic certification and 804 ha are in transition to organic production. The major vineyards and valleys with organic wine production are Maipo (33.7%), Colchagua (17.2%), El Maule (14.0%), Curicó (9.9%), and Cachapoal (8.8%). The most important organic red varieties currently under production are `Cabernet Sauvignon' (40.9%), `Merlot' (15.1%), `Syrah' (9.1%), `Carmenere' (7.3%), `Malbec' (3.3%), and `Pinot Noir' (2.5%). The white varieties are `Sauvignon Blanc' (6.4%), `Chardonnay' (5.1%), and `Semillón' (1.0%). The potential for the organic wine industry in Chile is tremendous since organic vineyards represent only 2% of the total vineyard industry.