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Yosef Al Shoffe and Christopher B. Watkins

titrator; Mettler Toledo, Hightstown, NJ) and expressed as a percentage of malic acid (grams malic acid per 100 mL of juice). The starch pattern index (SPI) of each fruit cut at the equator was assessed using the Cornell generic chart where 1 = 100% stained

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Gregory Peck, Megan McGuire, Thomas Boudreau IV, and Amanda Stewart

Oct. Table 2. Fruit diameter, mean fruit weight, red peel color, flesh firmness, starch pattern index (SPI), internal ethylene concentration (IEC), soluble solid concentration (SSC), pH, and titratable acidity (TA) of ‘York’/‘M.9’ apples with low [two

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Said A. Hamido, Kelly T. Morgan, Robert C. Ebel, and Davie M. Kadyampakeni

tree. Leaf area and leaf area index. During SF measurements, leaves were counted on two trees for each treatment on the branches holding the SF sensors. Average individual leaf area was estimated by sampling 10 representative leaves at different points

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Georgia Ntatsi, Dimitrios Savvas, Georgia Ntatsi, Hans-Peter Kläring, and Dietmar Schwarz

development by shortening internodes that reduce plant length, retard leaf expansion, reduce leaf number and total leaf fresh weight while increasing dry matter content and thickness of leaves arising from increased starch storage ( Venema et al., 1999 ). When

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David R. Rudell, Sara Serra, Nathanael Sullivan, James P. Mattheis, and Stefano Musacchi

Doerflinger, F.C. Miller, W.B. Nock, J.F. Watkins, C.B. 2015 Relationships between starch pattern indices and starch concentrations in four apple cultivars Postharvest Biol. Technol. 110 86 95 Eccher Zerbini, P. 2002 The quality of pear fruit Acta Hort. 596

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Harpartap S. Mann, Jennifer J. Alton, SooHee Kim, and Cindy B.S. Tong

. ‘Macoun’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ fruit from the Horticultural Research Center (HRC) in Chanhassen, MN, were harvested in Fall 1999 from five or more trees, when the threshold starch index was between 5 and 6 ( Blanpied and Silsby, 1992 ). In Fall 2005

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Sara Serra, Rachel Leisso, Luca Giordani, Lee Kalcsits, and Stefano Musacchi

color and percentage of red-blushed surface (estimated as the percentage of red overcolor on the total apple surface), flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), starch index (SI), dry matter, TA, and internal ethylene concentration (IEC). One

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Lingyun Yuan, Yujie Yuan, Shan Liu, Jie Wang, Shidong Zhu, Guohu Chen, Jinfeng Hou, and Chenggang Wang

defense pathways Food Chem. 221 1077 1087 Miyagi, M. Oku, H. Chinen, I. 1990 Purification and action pattern on soluble starch of a-amylase from sugarcane leaves Agr. Biol. Chem. 54 849 855 Nakano, Y. Asada, K. 1981 Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by

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Junhuo Cai, Junjun Fan, Xuying Wei, and Lu Zhang

of flower buds, and the degree of flowering and withering). Data analysis. The mean and sd of each index were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2013. We compared the different levels of any given factor using one-way analyses of variance, followed by

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

sampled weekly from February to March, and harvested when a random sample of less than or equal to six apples per week began to show a change in starch hydrolysis determined by the starch pattern index (SPI) ( ENZAFRUIT, 2007 ). Fruit were immediately