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Mohamed S. Al-Saikhan, Luke R. Howard, and J. Creighton Miller Jr.

Two varieties of yellow flesh (Granola and Yukon Gold) and two white flesh (Viking and Russet Norkotah) potatoes were grown near Springlake, Texas in the summer of 1992. Varieties were investigated for their antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Varieties were significantly different in antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (P = 0.0001). Granola had the highest antioxidant activity and Russet Norkotah the highest total phenolic content, while Yukon Gold had the lowest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Further study was conducted on tuber parts (distal end, center, and stem end) and among sections within each tuber part. Differences were slight among tuber parts in antioxidant activity, but significant in total phenolic content. Moreover, the differences were slight among the three sections for antioxidant activity and total phenolic content, while the fourth section containing the skin (epidermal tissue) had the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

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W. Kalt, C. Lawand, and C.F. Forney

Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit of the cultivars `Bergitta', `Bluegold', and `Nelson' were harvested at six stages of maturity and evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin and phenolic content. Fruit of the four earliest maturities were also stored at 20 °C for up to 8 days. At the time of harvest, fruit of different maturities had substantial differences in their anthocyanin content, and less marked differences in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Substantial anthocyanin synthesis occurred in under-ripe fruit during 20 °C storage, and varied depending on fruit maturity at harvest. Total phenolic content changed very little during storage, and there was no change in fruit antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that anthocyanin phenolics are formed on or off the plant, primarily from other pre-existing phenolic components. Whether phenolics are present as anthocyanins or other colorless forms, has relatively little impact on antioxidant capacity.

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Deirdre M. Holcroft and Adel A. Kader

Anthocyanin concentrations increased in both external and internal tissues of `Selva' strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) stored in air at 5 °C for 10 days, but the increase was lower in fruit stored in air enriched with 10 or 20 kPa CO2. Flesh red color was less intense in CO2 storage than in air storage. Activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and UDP glucose: flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) decreased during storage, with decreases being greater in both external and internal tissues of strawberry fruit stored in air + 20 kPa CO2 than in those kept in air. Activities of both PAL and GT in external tissues of strawberries stored in air + 10 kPa CO2 were similar to those in fruit stored in air, while enzyme activities in internal tissues more closely resembled those from fruit stored in air + 20 kPa CO2. Phenolic compounds increased during storage but were not affected by the storage atmosphere. The pH increased and titratable acidity decreased during storage; these effects were enhanced in internal tissues by the CO2 treatments, and may in turn have influenced anthocyanin expression.

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M. Elena Garcia, C.R. Rom, and J.B. Murphy

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of leaf age and shading on the phenolic content and composition of apple foliage. In the first study, it was determined that the phenolic content of `Liberty', at increasing leaf developmental stages, was leaf age—dependent. Early during leaf development, there was an increase in the phloridzin (the primary glycoside identified) and in total phenolics, reaching a maximum when the leaf is 6 days from 20-mm blade length. After this stage, the phenolic content decreased with increasing leaf age. In the second study, the leaves of two cultivars, `Liberty' and `Starkspur Law Rome', were tagged weekly when the leaf was two-thirds unfolded. Three weeks after budbreak, the trees were placed under three shade cloth treatments (0%, 60%, and 90% shade). After 4 weeks under the shade treatments, the tagged leaves were collected to determine their phenolic content. Shade significantly affected the foliar phenolic content. Leaves in 0% shade had the highest phenolic content, whereas the lowest content was found in leaves exposed to 90% shade. There was a significant leaf age × shade interaction. The phenolic content decreased with increasing leaf age except for those leaves whose development occurred before the experiment was started. The results indicate that light and leaf developmental stage are important factors in determining the phenolic content of apple leaves, but shading appears to have a stronger influence than leaf developmental stage. E-mail mgarcia@zoo.uvm.edu; phone (802) 656-2824.

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Malkeet S. Padda and David H. Picha

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were quantified in the principal sweetpotato cultivars marketed in the European Union. Total phenolic content, individual phenolic acids, and antioxidant activity in each cultivar were determined using Folin-Denis reagent, reversed-phase HPLC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, respectively. Significant differences in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were found between cultivars. A Jamaican-grown, white-fleshed cultivar had the highest total phenolic content [4.11 mg·g-1 chlorogenic acid (dry tissue weight)], while the highest antioxidant activity [3.60 mg·g-1 Trolox (dry tissue weight)] was observed in the orange-fleshed California-grown cultivar Diane. Chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were the predominant phenolic acids, while caffeic acid was the least abundant in most cultivars. The highest content of chlorogenic acid (0.42 mg·g-1 dry tissue weight); 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (0.43 mg·g-1 dry tissue weight); and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (0.25 mg·g-1 dry tissue weight) was present in the white-fleshed Jamaican cultivar. The orange-fleshed cultivars Diane and Beauregard had the highest content of caffeic acid (0.13 mg·g-1 dry tissue weight) and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (0.32 mg·g-1 dry tissue weight), respectively.

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Guiwen W. Cheng and Patrick J. Breen

Studies on regulation of production of phenolics in strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch,) fruit were initiated by monitoring phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and levels of anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and other soluble phenols throughout fruit ontogeny in `Tillikum'. PAL catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, which are further modified into a wide variety of phenolic compounds. Peak in PAL activity (1 mol· s-1 = 1 kat) of 90 pkat· mg-1 protein was detected at 5 and 27 days after anthesis (DAA), when fruit was green and nearly ripe, respectively. PAL activity was only ≈10% of peak values in the white berry stage, when. fruit growth was most rapid. The second peak in PAL activity was followed by a rapid drop, to nearly zero in red-ripe fruit at 30 DAA. Total soluble phenols reached a maximum level soon after anthesis, just before the first peak in PAL activity, then declined to a low constant value well in advance of fruit ripening. Similar changes were observed in levels of tannins and flavonoids that, at anthesis, accounted for 44% and 51% of the soluble phenols, respectively. The concentration of anthocyanin was very low throughout most of fruit development, but beginning at 23 DAA it increased from <0.03 to >0.53 mg·g-1 fresh weight in 3 days. This accumulation paralleled the second rise in PAL activity. Accordingly, strawberry fruit have a developmental-dependent expression of PAL activity and accumulation of phenolic substances derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway.

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers, and Robert Durst

present. Determination of total phenolics. Total phenolics were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) method ( Singleton and Rossi, 1965 ) from the ethyl acetate and methanol fractions produced in the anthocyanin extraction procedure. One

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Jorge M. Fonseca, James W. Rushing, Nihal C. Rajapakse, Ronald L. Thomas, and Melissa B. Riley

The purpose of this review is to promote a discussion about the potential implications of herb production in controlled environments, focusing on our recent works conducted with feverfew. Research suggests that the content of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants fluctuates with changing environmental conditions. Our studies with feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium [L.] Schultz-Bip., Asteraceae) lend support to this hypothesis. Feverfew plants exposed to different water and light conditions immediately before harvest exhibited changes in content of some secondary metabolites. The highest yield of parthenolide (PRT) was in plants that received reduced-water regimes. Phenolics concentration however, was higher in plants receiving daily watering. Light immediately before harvest enhanced accumulation of PRT, but reduced the phenolic content. Notably, PRT decreased at night whereas total phenolics decreased during the photoperiod and increased at night. PRT also increased with increased plant spacing. UV light supplementation increased PRT only in plants that had undergone water stress, whereas phenolics increased when UV was applied to continuosly watered plants. Clearly, production of medicinal plants under greenhouse conditions is a promising method for controlling levels of phytochemicals through manipulation of light and water as discussed here, and possibly other environmental factors such as temperature and daylength. However, better understanding of how the environment alter secondary metabolite levels is needed as it was revealed that manipulating the environment to favor increased accumulation of one group of phytochemicals could result in a decline of other key metabolites.

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John R. Stommel and Bruce D. Whitaker

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is ranked among the top ten vegetables in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity due to its fruit's phenolic constituents. Several potential health promoting effects have been ascribed to plant phenolic phytochemicals. We report here a first evaluation of phenolic acid constituents in eggplant fruit from accessions in the USDA eggplant core subset. The core subset includes 101 accessions of the cultivated eggplant, S. melongena, and 14 accessions representing four related eggplant species, S. aethiopicum L., S. anguivi Lam., S. incanum L., and S. macrocarpon L. Significant differences in phenolic acid content and composition were evident among the five eggplant species and among genotypes within species. Fourteen compounds separated by HPLC, that were present in many but not all accessions, were identified or tentatively identified as hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives based on HPLC elution times, UV absorbance spectra, ES-—MS mass spectra, and in some cases proton NMR data. These phenolics were grouped into five classes: chlorogenic acid isomers, isochlorogenic acid isomers, hydroxycinnamic acid amide conjugates, unidentified caffeic acid conjugates, and acetylated chlorogenic acid isomers. Among S. melongena accessions, there was a nearly 20-fold range in total HCA content. Total HCA content in S. aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon was low relative to S. melongena. A S. anguivi accession had the highest HCA content among core subset accessions. Chlorogenic acid isomers ranged from 63.4% to 96% of total HCAs in most core accessions. Two atypical accessions, S. anguivi PI 319855 and S. incanum PI500922, exhibited strikingly different HCA conjugate profiles, which differed from those of all other core subset accessions by the presence of several unique phenolic compounds. Our findings on eggplant fruit phenolic content provide opportunities to improve eggplant fruit quality and nutritive value.

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Xin Zhao*, Janice E. Young, Ted Carey, and Weiqun Wang

Organic vegetables have been suggested to produce higher levels of phytochmemicals, which play active roles in disease prevention. We measured total phenolic and aglycone flavonoid (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin) contents in leaves of organically- and conventionally-grown lettuce (`Kalura' and `Red Sails'), collards (`Top Bunch') and Pak Choi (`Mei Qing') greens during spring and summer trials, using the Folin assay and HPLC, respectively. Postharvest changes in phenolic contents of organic and conventional lettuce were also investigated after 17-day storage at 4 °C. Production system did not cause a significant difference in total phenolic levels of lettuce and collards in either trial, but total phenolics were significantly higher in organic Pak Choi in the summer trial, possibly due to greater flea beetle damage in the organic plots. Organic production did not affect the aglycone flavonoid levels of lettuce and collards in the spring trial except that apigenin increased in organic samples. In the summer trial, however, concentrations of kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin tended to increase in organic lettuce and collards; only luteolin showed promising increase in Pak Choi. Species and cultivars both had significant effects on total phenolic and flavonoid contents. After 17-day storage, total phenolic content significantly increased in both organic and conventional lettuce although the concentrations of aglycone flavonoids remained relatively constant. Total phenolic content was higher in organic `Red Sails' at a marginal significance level after storage, while it did not differ between organic and conventional `Kalura'. We noted a dominant presence of glycoside flavonoids in lettuce before and after storage, which warrants further study.