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Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Brian M. Schwartz, and Jeff A. Brady

often display phenotypic variation ( Gill et al., 1995 ; Pelsy, 2010 ). When microsatellite markers were used among clones from many grape cultivars (which are diploids), three to four alleles were detected ( Franks et al., 2002 ; Hocquigny et al

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He Li, Cheng-Jiang Ruan, Li Wang, Jian Ding, and Xing-Jun Tian

and planted on a wide scale. More optimal parental combinations need to be selected for cross breeding, and a key step is to clarify the genetic relationships among cultivars ( Becelaere et al., 2005 ). Molecular markers are widely used as a tool for

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R.L. Rusholme Pilcher, J-M. Celton, S.E. Gardiner, and D.S. Tustin

; Liebhard et al., 2003a ; Segura et al., 2007 ), no genetic marker has been reported for the dwarfing ability of rootstocks. This means that current apple rootstock breeding programs are confined to using conventional breeding strategies. The identification

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Jericó J. Bello-Bello, Lourdes G. Iglesias-Andreu, Susana A. Avilés-Viñas, Eunice Gómez-Uc, Adriana Canto-Flick, and Nancy Santana-Buzzy

repeat (SSR), restriction fragment length polymorphism, and amplified fragment length polymorphism. The use of these molecular markers to detect variations at genomic DNA level in plant has been clearly documented ( Andreev et al., 2005 ; Gernand et al

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Beibei Li, Xiucai Fan, Ying Zhang, Chonghuai Liu, and Jianfu Jiang

; He and Chao, 1982 ; Wan et al., 2008 ). However, these methods are easily affected by environmental conditions and developmental stages ( Luo et al., 2001 ). Fortunately, DNA molecular marker techniques are able to overcome these limitations and act

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Zhiyong Wang, Paul Raymer, and Zhenbang Chen

. Augustinegrass are limited ( Busey, 1995 , 2003 ; Cai et al., 2011 ; Cathey et al., 2011 ; Kimball et al., 2012 ; Milla-Lewis et al., 2013 ; Mulkey et al., 2014 ). Mulkey et al. (2013 , 2014 ) developed simple sequence repeat markers of S. secundatum

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Lamia Krichen, Joao M.S. Martins, Patrick Lambert, Abderrazzak Daaloul, Neila Trifi-Farah, Mohamed Marrakchi, and Jean-Marc Audergon

; Zhebentyayeva et al., 2003 ). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers were chosen for their distribution through the whole genome as was evidenced by Lambert et al. (2004) in apricot, and their potentially high polymorphism enabling a

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Xiaoying Li, Hongxia Xu, Jianjun Feng, and Junwei Chen

). As a result, SSRs are simple and efficient markers useful in the analysis of codominance and highly polymorphic lines. SSRs have been used extensively in genetic diversity assessments ( Li et al., 2010a ), cultivar fingerprinting ( Wang et al., 2011

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Karen Harris-Shultz, Melanie Harrison, Phillip A. Wadl, Robert N. Trigiano, and Timothy Rinehart

fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers ( Fu et al., 2004 ) have been used to assess genetic diversity. Fu et al. (2004) assessed the genetic diversity of six natural populations of little bluestem in Manitoba and Saskatchewan and Huff et al. (1998

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Michael J. Havey and Yul-Kyun Ahn

polymorphisms in expressed regions of larger genomes useful for diversity analyses and development of genetic maps ( Duangjit et al., 2013 ; Gore et al., 2009 ; Ipek et al., 2015 ; Kuhl et al., 2004 ; Martin et al., 2005 ). Molecular markers, such as