`High-temperature controlled-atmosphere (high CO2/low O2) conditioning was investigated as a possible treatment to delay the incidence of internal breakdown of peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during subsequent cold storage. Maintaining an atmosphere of 5% to 15% CO2 added to air or to 1% to 5% O2 while conditioning peaches for 2 days at 20C partially prevented fruit ripening (compared to fruit conditioned in air), as measured by flesh softening and loss of green pigment, while no off-flavors were detected. Conditioning of peaches at 20C for 4 days in air or in air + 20% CO2 was detrimental to fruit quality, as indicated by flesh softening or detection of off-flavors.
George D. Nanos and F. Gordon Mitchell
Noël E. Pallais, Nelly Y. Espinola, Rosario M. Falcon, and Ruperto S. Garcia
Sexual seeds of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) usually emerge poorly under high-temperature conditions (> 25 C). A seedling vigor study was conducted during the warm season (1988-89) in Lima, Peru, and the results of two representative tests. are reported. Two presowing treatments and a rinsed control were compared for seedlingstand establishment in a screenhouse with old (>18 months) and new (> 6 months) sexual seeds of three potato crosses. The treatments consisted of soaking the seed in solutions of KN03 + K3P04 at – 1.0 MPa (priming) and gibberellic acid at 1500 ppm (GA1500). Seedling vigor was lower at 34C (February test) than at 29C (November test). In both tests, overall seedling performance was highest in seed of the cross Atlantic × LT-7. Old seed was more vigorous than new seed, particularly when the crosses Atzimba × R128.6 (B2) and Serrana × LT-7 (Cl) were tested at 34C. Priming increased percentage of early (10 days) emergence over the other treatments at 34C and increased seedling dry weight in both tests. GA1500 increased percentage of final (17 days) emergence in crosses B2 and Cl, as compared to rinsing, except at 29C, where there were no significant differences in old seed. For sowing true potato seed at high temperature, a) the genotype is a crucial factor, b) sufficient seed storage (> 18 months) may be essential, and c) seed priming is more effective than the standard GA1500 treatment.
Relationship between root system and shoot pruning was studied by three different pruning times (February, June, and August) and intensity (heavy, medium, and light) using satsuma mandarin trees (Citrus unshiu Marc.). Root weight, respiratory rate of fine root, and CO2 concentration in root zone were measured on the 90th day after starting each pruning treatment. The weight of fine root was more severely influenced by pruning intensity than by pruning time. Fine root of heavy pruned trees showed lower respiratory rate than those of medium- and light-pruned trees. Heavy-pruned trees showed the highest CO2 concentration level in root zone. Influence of high root temperature on root respiration was investigated using `Kyoho' grape (Vitis vinifera L. × V. Iabrusca L.), kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and satsuma mandarin trees. Respiratory rate of grape root increased more rapidly than those of mandarin and kiwifruit under high root temperature. Respiratory rate of mandarin root given immersion treatment in stagnated water began to decrease significantly at the 70th hour after starting the treatment. Photosynthesis of the trees decreased by 85% at the same time.
John Jifon, Kevin Crosby, and Daniel Leskovar
Poster Session 46—Temperature Stress Physiology 21 July 2005, 12:00–12:45 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F
James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins
Dendranthema ×grandiflorm (Ramat.) Kitamura `Powerhouse' plants were pinched to five nodes and grown in growth chambers at 35C day temperature (DT) and 14,17,21,24, or 27C night temperature (NT) to determine if NT influenced lateral shoot development on plants exposed to high DT. Vegetative cuttings were removed from two successive flushes of lateral shoots and evaluated for lateral shoot development after rooting and subsequent apex removal. Lateral shoot development was determined on a third flush of shoots that developed on the stock plants. The percentage of nodes that developed lateral shoots on stock plants or vegetative cuttings was not related to NT. The percentage of first-order, second-order, and third-order axillary nodes that developed a lateral shoot on the stock plants, averaged over all NT, was 76, 65, and 12, respectively. The percentage of nodes that developed lateral shoots on the first-order and second-order cuttings was 29 and 19, respectively. We concluded that cool NT were ineffective in preventing a decrease in lateral branching on plants grown under high (35C) DT conditions.
Lorna C. Wilkins and William R. Graves
Development of half-sib Gleditsia triacanthos inermis Willd. (honey locust) seedlings was studied during exposure to osmotic and high root temperature stress. Seven days after seed scarification, seedlings of uniform fresh weight were transferred to static hydroponic culture vessels in a growth chamber. Three days later, vessel solutions were replaced with polyethylene glycol 8000-amended solutions with osmotic potentials (ψπ) of -0.05, -0.10, or -0.20 MPa at 23C. Within each ψπ treatment, root temperature was increased from ambient (23C) to 35C for 0, 6, 12, or 24 hr day-1 for 20 days. Root and shoot dry weights decreased with increasing exposure to 35C among seedlings in the -0.05 MPa solution and decreased for seedlings in -0.10 and -0.20 MPa solutions in all temperature regimes. Epicotyl expansion tended to decrease with decreasing ψπ and increasing exposure to 35C. However, for plants in the -0.20 MPa solution, epicotyl length was greatest when roots were exposed to 35C for 6 hr day-1.
Ronald F. Walden and Robert D. Wright
Pine bark-filled containers periodically fertilized with a (NH4)2SO4 solution were heated from 21°C to one of 5 temperatures (28°, 34°, 40°, 46°, or 52°C) for a daily exposure duration of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 24 hours. Medium solution extracts were analyzed for NH4-N and NO3-N every 5 days for 20 days. Treatment temperature of at least 40°C and a daily exposure duration of 24 hours was necessary to inhibit nitrification, thereby increasing NH4-N concentration in the medium solution. Similar increase in NH4-N was found for a 2 hr/day exposure to 46°C, with further increases in NH4-N at longer exposure times. By day 10, the maximum level1 of NH4-N concentration in medium extracts was found after a 1 hr/day exposure to 52°C. Decreases in medium solution NO3-N concentration generally coincided with the increases in NH4-N. Results indicate that high container temperatures may increase the ratio of NH4-N to NO3-N in the medium solution of plants fertilized with predominantly ammoniacal N.
Beyoung-han Yoon, Harvey J. Lane, and B. Greg Cobb
Pansy (Viola × wiffrockiana cv. Majestic Giant Blue Shades and Crystal Bowl Sky Blue) seeds were primed in various salt sololions at -1.0 MPa for 3, 6 or 9 days at 23C to determine if priming could overcome thermoinhihition at high temperatures (30C and above). Salt solutions tested were KNO3, KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, Na2SO4, Na2HPO4, K2HPO4 and CaCl2, with polyethylene glycol (PEG) serving as a comparison non-salt solution. Total percent germination (G) of non-primed seeds decreased significantly for both cultivars as germination temperature increased from 25C to 35C. Total seed germination and time to 50% germination (TS,) varied widely among the different priming solutions, with all solutions decreasing Tso as compared to non-primed seeds. Seeds primed with PEG for 6 and 9 days, however, germinated during the priming process and were not further examined. Priming did not significantly improve total percent germination versus non-primed seed at 25C. Seeds that had the best G and T50 at temperatures at or above 30C were those primed for 3 days with CaCl2 (for `Crystal Bowl' there was a 40% increase in G at 35C), and MgCl2 (for `Majestic Giant' there was a 15% increase in G at 35C).
Timothy S. Prather, James J. Stapleton, Susan B. Mallek, Tarcisio S. Ruiz, and Clyde L. Elmore
A double-tent solarization technique, which accumulates higher soil temperatures than solarization of open fields, was recently approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as a nematicidal treatment for container nurseries. Due to the need for broad-spectrum pest control in container nursery settings, this technique was tested to determine its usefulness as an herbicidal treatment. Laboratory-derived thermal death dosages (temperatur × time) for several weed species important in California, including common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus), and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), were previously determined and the data were used as guidelines for devising treatment duration in this study. In two field experiments conducted in 1999 and 2000 to validate the laboratory data, moist soil was placed in black polyethylene planting bags [3.8 L (1 gal) volume], artificially infested with seeds of the three test species, and subjected to 0 to 24 hours of double-tent solarization after reaching a threshold temperature of 60 °C (140 °F) (about 1.5 to 2.0 h after initiation of the experiment). In 1999, samples were removed at 2, 4, 20, and 24 hours after reaching the 60 °C threshold, then incubated to ameliorate possible secondary dormancy effects. Seeds failed to germinate in any of the solarized treatments. In 2000, samples were removed at 0, 1, 2, and 6 h after reaching 60 °C. Again, apart from the nonsolarized control treatment, all weed seeds failed to germinate at any of the sampling periods, in accordance with prior laboratory thermal death results. Reference tests to estimate effects of container size on soil heating showed that soil in smaller container sizes (soil volume) reached higher temperatures, and were maintained at high temperature [above 60 °C (140 °F)] for a longer period of time, than larger container sizes. The double-tent solarization technique can be used by commercial growers and household gardeners to effectively and inexpensively produce weed-free soil and potting mixes in warmer climatic areas.
Karl J. Sauter, David W. Davis, Paul H. Li, and I.S. Wallerstein
Yield in common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., can be significantly reduced by high temperature (I-IT) during bloom. Ethylene production from plant tissue increases as a consequence of various stresses, including heat stress. The inheritance of leaf ethylene evolution rate (EER) of HT-stressed (35/30C day/night) progenies from crosses among bean genotypes previously categorized as HT sensitive or tolerant, based on cell electrolyte leakage, was investigated. Evidence from generation means analysis of Fl, F2, and backcross progenies shows EER to be genetically controlled, with additive, dominance, and epistatic effects indicated for low EER. The range (0.62 to 2.52 μg-1·hr-1) of EER from field-grown lines and cultivars suggests the existence of considerable genetic variability. EER was associated (r = –0.70) with heat tolerance, as estimated by cell electrolyte; leakage.