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Jeffrey P. Mitchell, Anil Shrestha, Karen Klonsky, Tom A. Turini, and Kurt J. Hembree

May, 2005 , 2006 ; Phene et al., 1985 ). The basic equation is now widely used by CV tomato farmers for irrigation scheduling is ETc = Kc × ETo, where ETc is the projected evapotranspiration of the tomato crop, Kc is a corresponding growth

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Waltram Second Ravelombola, Ainong Shi, Yuejin Weng, John Clark, Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and Vibha Srivastava

, geographical distribution proved to be a strong driving factor on plant adaptation to stress. Burke (1990) reported that crops grown in semiarid areas developed mechanisms which enabled them to overcome permanent exposure to high temperature. Those mechanisms

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Xuan Liu and Donald L. Suarez

Soil salinization is a widespread problem affecting ≈20% of world irrigated land, posing a threat to crop production ( Munns et al., 2020 ). Because most crops are glycophytes and sensitive to salt stress, it is expected that a low level of salinity

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Qirui Cui, Haizheng Xiong, Yufeng Yufeng, Stephen Eaton, Sora Imamura, Jossie Santamaria, Waltram Ravelombola, Richard Esten Mason, Lisa Wood, Leandro Angel Mozzoni, and Ainong Shi

environmental factors. A quarter of the world's population is threatened by this problem, and most of them are from the developing countries of Africa and Asia. Among all leguminous crops, cowpea [ Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.] has a relatively high adaptation

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Qi Zhang, Liqi Yang, and Kevin Rue

sensitive YL6. Drought may also influence carbon allocation in plants. For example, RSR was higher in drought-stressed rice ( Oryza sativa ) compared with the well-watered plants ( Xu et al., 2015 ). Similar results were reported in other crops, including

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Jonathan M. Frantz, Sushant Khandekar, and Scott Leisner

19,000 μ m . The exact threshold between Cu sufficiency to toxicity is largely unknown for most floriculture crop species. A few greenhouse crops grown hydroponically have been well characterized and the Cu concentration that leads to plant stress

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Steven T. Koike, Frank G. Zalom, and Kirk D. Larson

, achieved with use of crop best management practices, enables such plants to better withstand environmental stresses in the spring and summer and resulted in reduced incidence of T3B ( Larson et al., 2005 , 2006 ). Despite such findings, many growers and

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Alefsi David Sánchez-Reinoso, Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

competition between crops, causing bean plants to be exposed to abiotic stresses such as water and thermal stress ( Porch et al., 2007 ). For instance, beans are mainly cultivated in the Andean region in Colombia, and this area of the country has been affected

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Wayne Loescher, Zhulong Chan, and Rebecca Grumet

strategies for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in crop species. These include traditional breeding with selection for yield, mutation breeding, screening within phenotype, and introducing germplasm from wild species into the crop species. There has been

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Wei Hao, Rajeev Arora, Anand K. Yadav, and Nirmal Joshee

Cold and drought stresses are acknowledged to be the two most dominant environmental stresses that affect the growth, productivity, and distribution of crops and horticultural plants ( Boyer, 1982 ; Levitt, 1980 ). The plasma membrane of the cell