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Robert G. Nelson, Benjamin L. Campbell, Robert C. Ebel, and William A. Dozier Jr.

(Brix/acid ratio). Because these limitations may exclude a significant proportion of the fruit that growers would like to sell, strict adherence to such standards is unlikely without more coordination between stakeholders in the industry. Alternate

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Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez and James E. Hook

study evaluating the effects of alternate-row irrigation in chili pepper ( Capsicum annuum ), incidence of phytophthora root rot in plots receiving alternate-row irrigation without fungicides was significantly less than irrigation of every row without

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Naveen Kumar, Fnu Kiran, and Ed Etxeberria

.6 million boxes in 2016, the lowest in the last 50 years ( USDA, 2017 ). After introduction into host leaves, C Las travels from the point of infection to roots causing extensive injury to the fibrous root system in the process ( Graham et al., 2013

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Gary R. Cline, John D. Sedlacek, Steve L. Hillman, Sharon K. Parker, and Anthony F. Silvernail

companion plants. In these treatments, companion plant rows alternated with watermelon rows such that watermelon rows had a row of companion plants on either side. In one companion plant treatment, single rows of combined cucumber beetle-repelling plants

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Nathan Shoaf, Lori Hoagland, and Daniel S. Egel

rapid movement of inoculum around crop fields, and the pathogen can kill plants quickly making chemical control difficult ( Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 ; Granke et al., 2012 ). Crop rotation is ineffective because of the pathogen’s broad host range and

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Dan Jin, Philippe Henry, Jacqueline Shan, and Jie Chen

ovary encapsulated by bract and bracteoles (alternately called a calyx ), out of which projects two long stigmas. Bract, bracteoles, stigmas, and small leaves that grow out of inflorescences leaves are densely covered by capitate stalked trichomes

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Luis A. Rivera-Burgos, Emily Silverman, Nebahat Sari, and Todd C. Wehner

were incubated in a shaker at 180 rpm for 8 to 10 d at 24 ± 2 °C under alternating periods of 12 h of fluorescent light (40–90 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 photosynthetic photon flux density) and 12 h of darkness. For all inoculations, we filtered the liquid from

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Judith Pozo, Miguel Urrestarazu, Isidro Morales, Jessica Sánchez, Milagrosa Santos, Fernando Dianez, and Juan E. Álvaro

randomized complete block design, and five replicates were used. Each petri plate contained four leaf discs. The plates were kept at 16–22 °C in 12-h alternating periods of light and darkness. The necrotic area percentage was estimated 3, 7, and 14 d after

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Connie L. Fisk, Michael L. Parker, and Wayne Mitchem

; Majek et al., 1993 ; Meagher and Meyer, 1990 ; Welker and Glenn, 1989 ). Unwanted vegetation competes with trees for water and nutrients and can also serve as an alternate host for pathogens and insect pests, including hemipteran insects that damage

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Timothy L. Grey, Keith Rucker, Lenny Wells, and Xuelin Luo

for sunlight, moisture, and nutrients ( Smith, 2011 ). In established groves, weeds also serve as inoculum for diseases and alternate hosts for insects ( Lee, 1994 ). Establishing a weed-free strip by applying herbicides between pecan trees to increase