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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle, and David S. Gardner

LEDs may also increase the efficiency of anthocyanin synthesis. Currently, the use of LED systems to modulate anthocyanin production in turfgrasses would require greater upfront investment compared with traditional lighting. However, the upfront cost of

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Ariana P. Torres and Roberto G. Lopez

supplemental lighting can greatly increase quality and reduce subsequent time to flower when natural DLI levels are low (e.g., less than 8 mol·m −2 ·d −1 ). Thus, when natural irradiance falls below optimum levels, high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting should

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Zhong-Hua Bian, Rui-Feng Cheng, Qi-Chang Yang, Jun Wang, and Chungui Lu

Physiol. Plant. 114 65 72 Zhang, H.H. Yang, Q. Hu, J. Fan, H.P. Dai, J.G. Zhao, B. 2011 Self-adaptive and precise supplementary lighting system for plant with controllable LED intensity Trans. Chinese Soc. Agr. Eng. 27 153 158 . (In Chinese) Zhang, Y

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Sadasivam, 1997 ; Chung et al., 1989 ). Sprouts have been observed to contribute extensively to the immune system as excellent detoxificants ( Andarwulan et al., 1999 ; Yang et al., 2001 ). Sprouts from seeds of Cruciferae plants such as brussel sprouts

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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian, and Se Won Park

plantlets were transferred to a growth chamber illuminated with different LED lights. Lighting system and culture conditions. The LED-based light was tested in chili pepper growth experiments with different ranges of illumination. Plants at the eight

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

points of 23 ± 1 °C, and a DLI of ≈5 mol·m −2 ·d −1 was maintained for callusing using a combination of shade cloth and supplemental lighting from 1000-W high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (e-system HID; PARSource, Petaluma, CA) that delivered a

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Ying Ma, Xinduo Li, Zhanying Gu, and Jian’an Li

more reliable system for enhanced anthocyanin production is of considerable value for large-scale production that relies on stability in color determination ( Zhang et al., 2014 ). Supplemental lighting has been used to change leaf coloration and

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Ariana P. Torres, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Roberto G. Lopez

PT method as described by Wright (1986) and adapted by Cavins et al. (2008) is as follows. The crop should be irrigated 30 to 60 min before collecting leachate to ensure that the container substrate is at or near full water-holding capacity. If

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Amy L. McFarland, Danielle E. Hammond, Jayne M. Zajicek, and Tina M. Waliczek

, teenagers and gangs, and road traffic ( Veitch et al., 2005 ). Two important factors found in an investigation of the factors parents consider when looking for a play area for their children were safety and lighting of the area ( Sallis et al., 1997

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Fan Li, Guoxian Wang, Rongpei Yu, Min Wu, Qinli Shan, Lifang Wu, Jiwei Ruan, and Chunmei Yang

of Gypsophila paniculata , specific techniques such as artificial lighting and heating are used to provide optimal light and temperature conditions. Although the light can be replaced by an LED source, artificial heating is energy-consuming during