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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones, and Randolph Beaudry

2-methylbutyl acetate, which confer typical apple aroma characteristics ( Paillard, 1990 ). The esters are largely composed of either straight- or branched-chain alkyl (alcohol-derived) and alkanoate (acid-derived) groups. The ester product is formed

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Soon O. Park, Hye Y. Hwang, and Kevin M. Crosby

Melon, an economically important horticultural crop grown in many temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions of the world ( Wang et al., 1997 ), is a significant source of ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, folic acid, and potassium ( Lester, 1997

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Víctor Cros, Juan José Martínez-Sánchez, and José Antonio Franco

source of bioprotective nutrients: fatty acid ω3, antioxidants, vitamins, and essential amino acids ( Miller et al., 1984 ; Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 ; Simopoulos et al., 1992 ), glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol ( Liu et al., 2000 ; Palaniswamy et al

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Christopher J. Biai, José G. Garzon, Jason A. Osborne, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Ronald J. Gehl, and Christopher C. Gunter

synthesis have made production less expensive on a large commercial scale ( Petracek et al., 2005 ). Abscisic acid application has been used to slow shoot growth ( Watts et al., 1981 ) and has been used to control transplant growth in nurseries ( Leskovar

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Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Luigi Lucini, Elvira Rea, and Giuseppe Colla

since ancient times ( Bruneton, 1995 ). The chemical components of artichoke leaves have been studied extensively and have been found to be a rich source of polyphenolic compounds with mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids as the major chemical

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Sanalkumar Krishnan and Emily B. Merewitz

al. (2012) reported that foliar spray of PAs in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) significantly increased photosynthetic parameters, proline, total amino acids and soluble sugars, improved water status, grain yield, and reduced membrane damage under

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Yang Yang, Runfang Zhang, Pingsheng Leng, Zenghui Hu, and Man Shen

; Welling and Palva, 2008 ). Salicylic acid is a growth regulator in plants and is involved in many physiological processes ( Hayat et al., 2010 ; Miura and Tada, 2010 ), and plays an important role in both biotic and abiotic stress ( Ananieva et al., 2004

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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

(PGR) or biostimulants have been used to improve turfgrass tolerance to drought or heat stress, such as trinexapac-ethyl [TE ( Bian et al., 2009 ; Etemadi et al., 2015 ; Krishnan and Merewitz, 2015 )], abscisic acid [ABA ( Lu et al., 2009

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Peiyan Li, Xiaolin Zheng, Md. Golam Ferdous Chowdhury, Kim Cordasco, and Jeffrey K. Brecht

collectively during storage at low temperature or upon transfer to room temperature ( Nunes et al., 2007 ; Wang, 1993 ). Application of chemical substances such as salicylic acid ( Ding et al., 2007 ; Junmatong et al., 2012 ), methyl jasmonate ( González

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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han

various adaptive mechanisms for surviving freezing temperature such as increases in certain sugars or amino acids, increases in ABA content, and antioxidant capacity ( Patton et al., 2007a , 2007b ; Rogers et al., 1977 ; Zhang and Ervin, 2008 ; Zhang